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lsli11 - 11-111-1This SetThese slides do not give detailed...

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Unformatted text preview: 11-111-1This SetThese slides do not give detailed coverage of the material. See class notes and solvedproblems (last page) for more information.Text covers multiple-issue machines in Chapter 4, but does not cover most of the topicspresented here.OutlineMultiple Issue IntroductionSuperscalar MachinesVLIW MachineSample Problems11-1EE 4720 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 9:20, 28 March 2011 from lsli11.11-111-211-2Multiple IssueMultiple-Issue Machine:A processor that can sustain fetch and execution of more than one instruction per cycle.n-Way Processor:A multiple issue machine that can sustain execution ofninstructions per cycle.Scalar (Single-Issue) Processor:A processor that can sustain execution of at most one instruction per cycle.A neologism forthe five-stage MIPS implementation we have been working with.Sustain Execution ofnIPC:Achieve a CPI of1nfor some code fragment. . .. . .written by a friendly programmer. . .. . .to avoid cache misses and otherwise avoid stalls.11-2EE 4720 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 9:20, 28 March 2011 from lsli11.11-211-311-3Types of Multiple Issue MachinesSuperscalar Processor:A multiple-issue machine that implements a conventional ISA (such as MIPS and SPARC).Code need not be recompiled.General-purpose processors were superscalar starting in early 1990s.VLIW Processor:A multiple-issue machine that implements a VLIW ISA. . .. . .in which simultaneous execution considered. (More later.)Since VLIW ISAs are novel, code must be re-compiled.Idea developed in early 1980s,. . .. . .so far used in special-purpose and stillborn commercial machines,. . .. . .and is being used in Intels next generation processor.Intels Itanium implements the Itanium (nee IA-64) VLIW ISA.(Name of ISA and implementations are both Itanium.)11-3EE 4720 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 9:20, 28 March 2011 from lsli11.11-311-411-4Superscalar Machinesn-Way Superscalar Machine ConstructionStart with a scalar, a.k.a. single-issue, machine.Duplicate hardware so that most parts can handleninstructions per cycle.Dont forget about control and data hazards.11-4EE 4720 Lecture Transparency. Formatted 9:20, 28 March 2011 from lsli11.11-411-511-5Superscalar DifficultiesRegister FileScalar: 2 reads, 1 write per cycle....
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lsli11 - 11-111-1This SetThese slides do not give detailed...

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