1stexam.2011.dir

1stexam.2011.dir - Philosophy of Biology Philosophy 147...

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Philosophy of Biology Philosophy 147 Fall, 2011 Directions and Questions for First Exam Bring two bluebooks available in the university bookstore with nothing written in or on them (not even your name). These may be redistributed at the time of the exam. The exam will consist of the three parts, for which the instructions are as follows: Part A. Answer each of the following six questions in two to three sentences each (do not go on at length—you will not receive extra credit for going beyond a basic answer). Each question is worth up to 5 points (30 points total). The actual questions will be drawn from those listed below: 1. What did Aristotle mean by an essence? 2. What is meant by teleology? 3. What was one type of evidence Harvey invoked for circulation of blood? 4. What did Hooke observe in the microscope that led him to use the name cell for cells? 5. What problem did Schwann confront in attempting to extend the idea of cells as basic units to animals? 6. What role did crystals play in Schwann’s understanding of cells? 7. What was meant by phlogiston and what phenomena was it used to explain? 8. How was fermentation understood prior to the discovery of yeast? 9. What view were Wohler and Liebig making fun of when they satirically proposed that yeast have bladders that look like champagne bottles and proposed “these infusoria gobble sugar, and discharge ethyl alcohol from the intestine and carbon dioxide from the urinary organs.” 10. According to Liebig, what distinguishes the chemical reactions occurring in plants and animals? What motivated him to make this distinction? 11. What was meant by spontaneous generation? Why did it seem plausible? 12.
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This note was uploaded on 12/12/2011 for the course PHIL 147 taught by Professor Bechtel,w during the Fall '08 term at UCSD.

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1stexam.2011.dir - Philosophy of Biology Philosophy 147...

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