CellTheory

CellTheory - Mechanistic Ideas of Life: The Cell Theory...

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1 Mechanistic Ideas of Life: The Cell Theory Robert Boyle: Restorer of the Mechanical Philosophy Introduced the name mechanical philosophy Adapted and improved Otto von Guericke ` s design for the air pump Viewed air molecules as springs Boyle ` s law: l the hypothesis, that supposes the pressures and expansions to be in reciprocal proportion z Boyle and Respiration Boyle experimented with placing animals in the vacuum created with the air pump – insects (fleshfly, bee, butterfly) drop to the ground immediately, but recover when air is readmitted. Why? • Lack of buoyancy? • Need for air to live? – Tested other animals: mouse, non-flying insects (caterpillars) and they exhibited the same behavior
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2 Boyle and Respiration - 2 Boyle showed that if animals lived in a sealed container until death, new animals introduced in the container expire very quickly – Only a part of the air sustains life l Whence we may conjecture, That the portion of Air which hath once served the respiration of Animals as much as it could, is no longer useful for the respiration of another Animal, at least of the same kind. z A century later Joseph Priestley showed that plants could refresh the air – Identified the critical component l dephlogisticated air z and Lavoisier renamed it l oxygen z But what do the lungs do? Robert Hooke ` s experiments What do the lungs do? Cause circulation of the blood or provide new air? Hooke devised an experiment on a dog in which the lungs no longer contracted and dilated – Bellows supplied air to lungs with hole at opposite end so that air was provided, but no (or minimal) contraction – Heart continued to beat l for a pretty while. ...But upon ceasing this blast, and suffering the lungs to fall and lye still, the Dog would immediately fall into Dying convulsive fits; but as soon as reviv'd again by the renewing the fulness of his lungs, with the constant blast of fresh air. z Robert Hooke-1665 Examined thin slices of cork and discovered: "Yet it was not unlike a Honey-comb in these particulars. ..these pores, or cells, . .. consisted of a great many little Boxes. ... Nor is this kind of texture peculiar to Cork only; for upon examination with my Microscope , I have found that the pith of an Elder, or almost any other Tree, the inner pulp or pith of . .. several other Vegetables . .. have much such a kind of Schematisme , as I have lately shown [in] that of Cork." Hooke called them l cellulae z (Latin word for l little rooms z ). He made walls the defining property of cells
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3 Antony van Leeuwenhoek Developed his own single-lens microscopes for use on fabrics (operated a drapery business in Delft) First to observe details of animal structure (muscle banding) as well as single-celled organisms (bacteria, sperm) – Sent results to the new Royal Society Limitations on early microscopes Spherical aberration: failure of light rays to fall all in one plane when focused through a lens Chromatic aberration: dispersive action of lenses in
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CellTheory - Mechanistic Ideas of Life: The Cell Theory...

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