Darwin II

Darwin II - Darwin s On the Origin of Species In search of...

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1 Darwin ` s On the Origin of Species In search of a mechanism What is Darwin lacking? – A mechanism—no understanding of how these patterns arose September 1838: for amusement Darwin read the Essay on Population (1798) by Rev. Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834) » Malthus, along with Adam Smith and others interested in political economy, sought to discover the laws of society Malthus ` laws of population Law 1: Food Supply grows arithmetically :2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 . . . Law 2: Population tends to grow geometrically : 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 . . . 1 st consequence: Populations always tend to outrun food supplies 2 nd consequence: More offspring born than can survive 3 rd consequent: There will always be competition for food (and other) resources
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2 From competition to selection Overproduction means only some will survive That doesn’t yet imply selection as survival might only depend on luck, chance, etc. – Must add that survival depends upon the organism ` s abilities to deal with the demands of competition – Also, that there is variability among the competitors – And that this variability is heritable —offspring will possess those very traits that improved the parents ` ability to deal with environment demands Evolution by natural selection requires heritable variation in fitness Developing the idea—Darwin ` s notes on natural selection 15-page l Essay z of 1842 100+ page l Essay z of 1844 Circulated among some associates (Lyell, Joseph Dalton, Hooker) – They urged him to publish, but Darwin was cautious Chambers ` Vestiges was published in 1844 Darwin then detoured to work on systematics of barnacles ( Cirripedia )— a detailed two volume work that established Darwin ` s reputation in biology Goaded into publication Darwin received a letter in 1857 from Alfred Russel Wallace, a young naturalist living in Malaysia Wallace had also read Malthus and written a paper on l natural selection z Lyell and Hooker arranged for papers of both Darwin and Wallace to be read before the Linnaean Society in July 1858 and published in Society’s Proceedings in August There was no significant response to these papers Darwin began feverishly writing his l Abstract, z which he sent to his publisher, John Murray in June,1859 Published on November 1, 1859 and the first run of 1250 copies sold out that day
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3 Structure of the Origin— an abstract! 1. Variation Under Domestication 2. Variation Under Nature 3. Struggle for Existence 4. Natural Selection 5. Laws of Variation 6. Difficulties on Theory 7. Instinct 8. Hybridism 9. On the Imperfection of the Geological Record 10. On The Geological Succession of Organic Beings 11. Geographical Distribution 12. Geographical Distribution continued 13. Mutual Affinities of Organic Beings: Morphology: Embryology: Rudimentary Organs 14. Recapitulation and Conclusion Variation under domestication Why start with variability under
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This note was uploaded on 12/12/2011 for the course PHIL 147 taught by Professor Bechtel,w during the Fall '08 term at UCSD.

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Darwin II - Darwin s On the Origin of Species In search of...

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