Acids and Bases

Acids and Bases - CHEM50:AcidsandBases...

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CHEM 50: Acids and Bases Instructor: Ram Subramaniam Topics Solutions, solute, and solvent Concentration of solutions: o Mass to mass percent o Mass to volume percent o Molarity Definitions of Acids and Bases: o Arrhennius o Bronsted‐Lowry o Strong vs. weak Conjugate acid/base pair Autoionization of water, K W The pH scale Concentration to pH (and vice versa) calculations Stoichiometric calculations in acid‐base reactions Solutions A solution is a combination of a solute and a solvent (Solution = Solute + Solvent). The solute is the substance in smaller quantity and the solvent is the substance in larger quantity. A solution is a homogeneous mixture and therefore has uniform properties. In aqueous solutions, the solvent is water. Concentration of solutions The concentration of a solution is a determinant of the amount of solute that is present in a solution. This amount can be expressed in many different ways and three of those possible ways will be examined here. Mass to Mass percent: This is also written as m/m %. m/m % = GramsSolute GramsSolution × 100% Mass to Volume percent: This is also written as m/v %. m/v% = GramsSolute mL , Solution × 100% Molarity: This is the moles of solute in a liter of the solution. This is also written as “M”.
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Molarity = molesSolute Liters , Solution Definitions of Acids and Bases Arrhenius Definitions Acid: Releases H + ions in solution. When an acid undergoes dissociation in water, it will release H + ions. Example: HCl H 2 O H + (aq) + Cl (aq) Base: Releases OH ions in solution. When a base undergoes dissociation in water, it will release OH ions. Example: NaOH H 2 O Na + (aq) + OH (aq) Bronsted-Lowry Defnitions Proton: The same as H + ion.
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