14-ch17-fungi(1) - Edward Edward O. Wilson Wilson Biophilia...

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Unformatted text preview: Edward Edward O. Wilson Wilson Biophilia (1984) The object of the reflection can be summarized by a single word, biophilia, umm bio which I will be so bold as to define as the innate tendency to focus on life and and lifelike processes. Humanity is exalted not because we are so far above other living creatures, but because knowing them well elevates the very concept of life. th E.O. Wilson Some Some of us have so well-insulated wellourselves from the inconvenient and uncomfortable uncomfortable features of the natural world, we fail to see that in the process process we have isolated ourselves from the the convenient, comfortable, and beautiful features of that same natural world of which we are one very small, ld but but powerful, and now destructive part. Before progress—the idea and the ress— people who enacted the idea—covered idea— the globe, our ancestors lived in cultures cultures that were emergent from the places places where we lived. Daniel Wildcat The The human costs of alienation from nature [include]: diminished use of the senses, attention difficulties, and higher rates of physical physical and emotional illnesses. (Richard Louv, journalist) (Richard journalist) An indoor, sedentary child is linked to mental health problems. James Sallis, researcher researcher I like to play indoors better, 'cause that's where all the electrical outlets are. San Diego 4th grader Sometimes I go [to the woods] when I'm mad—and then, just with the peacefulness, mad and just I'm I'm better. I can come back home happy, and my mom doesn't even know why. Missouri 5th grader Subjects Subjects experienced significant decreases in blood pressure simply by watching fish in an aquarium. Frumkin Frumkin points to a ten-year study of gallbladder surgery patients... year the the patients with the view of the trees went home sooner. Although countless children who suffer from mental illness and attention attention disorders do benefit from medication, the use of nature as an alternative, additional, or preventative therapy is being overlooked. Richard Louv, journalist A policeman puppet is usually a policeman; a kid rarely makes it something else. But with landscape... you're giving the child ways of expressing expressing what's within. Sebastiano Santostefano, psychologist psychologist • • • • Plant and care for trees in your yard and community Encourage [children] to play in rooms with a view of nature Encourage children to play outdoors in green spaces Advocate recess in green schoolyards University of Illinois study results Hooray for bioremediation: plants sequester airborne toxins! bioremediation http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/kamal_meattle_on_how_to_grow_your_own_fresh_air.html http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/kamal_meattle_on_how_to_grow_your_own_fresh_air.html http://www.figweb.org/Ficus/index.htm http://www.figweb.org/Ficus/index.htm g g i i pothos / money plant / devil's ivy money plant devil's ivy Epipremnum aureum (Southeast Asia) rubber fig Ficus elastica (Southeast Asia) These house plants are easy to find, and easy to keep alive. heartleaf philodendron philodendron Philodendron hederaceum (Latin America) Sometimes Sometimes a tree tells you more than can be read in books. Carl Jung Diversity of Fungi http://www.sciencefriday.com/program/archives/200809124 Fungi Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by absorption 5 phyla contain 100,000 known species (may be 1.5 million) • all fungi are heterotrophic • unlike animals, which ingest food... animals which ingest fungi absorb food, with exoenzymes • fungi are sessile (but they grow really fast!) • some unicellular, but most are multicellular • decomposers, parasites, predators parasites predators • mutualistic symbionts http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/01/3/l_013_01.html Anatomy Anatomy & Ecology of a Fungus mycorrhizae – mutualistic association between fungal hyphae & (nearly all!) plant roots more more surface area for exchange of water, nutrients w/out with plant gets minerals... gets minerals gives organic nutrients fruiting body – reproductive structure (e.g., mushroom); produces diploid spores produces diploid spores hyphae – tubular cell walls cell walls single plant root hair, plant root hair covered with hyphae mycelium – large underground mat of hyphae (including fungal portion of mycorrizae) Fungi Fungi as decomposers break down complex carbohydrates (even cellulose) into sugars = crucial role in nutrient cycling edible “button” mushrooms (basidiomycete) cultured on manure bread molds belong to several different phyla different phyla shelf (bracket) fungus (basidiomycete) Lichen Lichen = mutualism between fungus (usually an ascomycete) & photosynthetic algae or cyanobacteria; fungus gets food in exchange for microhabitat Canary in a coal mine: lichens are great bioindicators bioindicators for air quality. air quality. Fungi Fungi as pathogens mycosis – fungal infection rice blast rice blast e e (ascomycete) (ascomycete) o o wheat rust (basidomycete) ~30% of fungi are parasites (mostly on plant hosts) of fungi are parasites (mostly on plant hosts) chestnut blight chestnut blight h h l l (ascomycete) (ascomycete) a a e e maple tar spot (ascomycete) Dutch elm disease (ascomycete) at at 1500 acres, the honey honey mushroom is in the running is for largest living organism! also known as shoestring rot also known as "shoestring rot" penetrates penetrates sapwood; kill trees Armillaria mellea Actual (March 2010) e-mail message from a student: Dr. Devito, in class you mentioned corn smut, we used Devito, in class you mentioned corn smut, we used to grow and sell sweet corn. For years we threw away ears that were afflicted with smut, then we found out the smut was worth more than the corn! smut was worth more than the corn! corn smut (basidomycete) Ustilago maydis, also known as Huitlacoche (Mexican truffle) is a delicacy! It adds flavor to soups, It fl quesadillas and tamales. Tinea pedis (ascomycte) more mycoses (fungal infections in animals): • localized, external: ringworm, athlete’s foot, jock itch • systemic: yeast infections, Coccidioidomycosis (“valley (“valley fever” or ”desert fever”), fungal pneumonia (secondary infection in AIDS patients) Beauveria (ascomycte) (ascomycte) biological biological control agent Aspergillus (an ascomycete) poultry lung infection Tinea corpora (ascomycte) Tinea corpora (ascomycte) a a a a Fungi Fungi as pathogens Fungi Fungi as pathogens http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/05/science/05frog.html?_r=2 Chytrid fungus contributes to fungus contributes to the the complex causes of worldwide amphibian declines http://thedianerehmshow.org/shows/2010-09-08/grace-pundyk-honey-trail http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=128574280 p o s p 8 Virus-Fungus Duo Latest Culprit in Honeybee Deaths Virus-Fungus Duo Latest Culprit in Honeybee Deaths r r u u a a r r e e a a http://news.discovery.com/animals/virus-fungus-duo-latest-culprit-in-honeybee-deaths.html Bats Bats Plagued By Mysterious “White Nose” Disease http://www.sciencefriday.com/program/archives/200804185 Scientists Say Bat Disease Likely To Spread http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=112035629 zoonotic – a widespread disease disease in nonhuman animals Practical uses of fungi edible “mushrooms” “mushrooms” “Truffles” (market value $1000/lb) Tuber (ascomycete) (ascomycete) (fruiting bodies of basidiomycetes) Can you spot an ascomycete? Practical Practical uses of fungi bakers & brewer ’s yeast doubles as a brewer yeast doubles as model organism for eukaryote genetics http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/04/4/l_044_02.html Saccharomyces (ascomycete) (ascomycete) http://www.sciencefriday.com/program/archives/200811283 Practical Practical uses of fungi Neurospora (ascomycete) Aspergillus Aspergillus p p (ascomycete) (ascomycete) o o ) ) This bread mold is another model organism. Aspergillus is used to brew is soy sauce. Penicillium (ascomycete) (ascomycete) “Blue” cheeses are inoculated with Penicillium. Penicillium Practical Practical uses of fungi antimicrobial, for example Penicillium (an ascomycete) prevents E. coli from E. from completing cytokinesis most most toxic mushrooms belong to the genus Amanita Amanita amatoxin poisonous “death cap” mushroom; ingestion often fatal (liver failure) - careless amateurs - curious children & dogs children dogs - Asian immigrants(!) Volvariella volvacea Amanita phalloides ...also found in “destroying angel” several closely related, toxic Amanita species http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~mow/chap40.html hallucinogenic hallucinogenic compounds in Amanita Amanita psychotropic substances: ibotenic acid & muscimol side effects: muscarine “fly agaric” “panther cap” http://www.erowid.org Amanita muscaria Amanita pantherina hallucinogenic compounds in Psilocybin psychotropic substances: psilocybin psylocin 180+ species of Psilocybin are used as “magic” mushrooms Chapter 18-19 Animal Diversity Welcome to your kingdom! Innovative concepts in exposing city kids to nature Animals have evolved a spectacular range of shapes, sizes & lifestyles • ingestive heterotrophs • all are multicellular • many are motile (but some are sessile) • most reproduce sexually reproduce sexually Sponges Sponges are sedentary suspension feeders without symmetry or true tissues… …but they have specialized cells they have specialized cells that that resemble the single celled choanoflagellate “protists.” Radially Radially symmetrical cnidarians sting their prey with spring-loaded, toxic stinging cells spring- typical jelly life stages include: sessile polyp & floating medusa polyp medusa cnyidocytes are triggered by tactile contact “Worm” “Worm” body plans are popular in many phyla; The tapeworm is a parasitic flatworm. flatworm fleas are the vector for transmission of tapeworms to cats & dogs flea life cycle The The Guinea worm is a parasitic roundworm. roundworm http://video.nytimes.com/video/2006/03/24/science/1194817106827/diseases-on-the-brink-guinea-worm.html FreeFree-living roundworms are abundant in soil ecosystems roundworms Millions of soil roundworms may live in one square meter of the forest floor! C. elegans preys on bacteria I’m a model organism! Mine was the first animal genome completely sequenced. Pl Plus, scientists have followed the developmental fate of every one of my cells! ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/12/2011 for the course BIO 2 taught by Professor Poenie during the Fall '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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