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19-ch35-behavior - Animal Animal behavior is a component of...

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Unformatted text preview: Animal Animal behavior is a component of phenotype phenotype behavior – everything an animal does, and how it does it; why? why? ethology – study of animal behavior of animal behavior behavioral ecology – study of behavior (as an adaptation) in the context of ecology (in the present) and evolution (over time) context of ecology (in the present) and evolution (over time) innate behavior – under strong genetic influence (not learned) taxis – automatic movement toward or away from stimulus fixed action pattern – sequence of unlearned behavioral acts; carried to completion once initiated by a sign stimulus (external trigger) Both Both genes & environmental factors influence behavior California mouse = monogamous with biparental care (vs. white-footed mouse) whitelarge genetic component to monogamy (brain chemistry); but also... Male California mice fostered by white-footed mice were not very good fathers! white- imprinting – specific learned behavior with a significant innate component, acquired during a limited sensitive period (critical developmental stage) innate maternal behaviors can be co-opted by interlopers… http://www.birds.cornell.edu/Publications/Birdscope/Summer2006/mistaken_identities. http://www.birds.cornell.edu/Publications/Birdscope/Summer2006/mistaken_identities. html http://www.snopes.com/photos/animals/tigerpig .asp Oxytocin Oxytocin mediates the emotional http://video.pbs.org/video/1139795823 response between people & pets.“Why We Love Cats & Dogs” Pets can reduce stress and boost health in humans! Animal Animal Signals & Communication signal – behavior that causes a change in behavior in another animal that causes change in behavior in another animal communication – transmission of, reception of, & response to signals; - visual, auditory, chemical, tactile & electrical cues - genetic & learned components pheromones –chemical that functions in communication & acts much like a that functions in communication acts much like hormone to influence physiology; behavior - courtship & mating - territoriality http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5HKl8Luuotw - alarm - kin recognition Territorial Territorial behavior parcels out space & resources territory – area, usually fixed in location, that individuals defend usually fixed in location that individuals defend against other members of the same species… Frogs Shake It Up http://www.sciencefriday.com/program/archives/201005 213 Rituals Rituals involving agonistic behavior often resolve confrontations agonistic behavior – includes a variety of threats or actual combat that settles disputes between individuals in a population (over resources; mates) Using threat displays to communicate, we need not communicate we need not always come to blows! dominance hierarchy – ranking of individuals based on social interactions interactions Once the order has been established, we can go about our business. Mating Mating behavior & mate choice promiscuous – no strong pair bonds or lasting relationships monogamous – one male mating with one female polygamous – individual of one sex mating with several of the other (e.g., harem); polygyn vs. polyandr gyny andry monogamous animals exhibit less sexual dimorphism than polygamous animals Monogamy Monogamy & Infidelity & why are we why tempted to cheat on our mates? Eastern Bluebird Why do birds pair off to raise offspring? http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/01/6/quicktime/l_016_07.html An exception to every rule... The Wattled Jacana exhibits role reversal. Polygyny is common Polygyny among animals; polyandry is rare! po http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/01/6/quicktime/l_016_04.html Alarm Alarm calls may benefit the recipient at the expense of the sender Why do female Belding’s ground squirrels call more often than males? altruism – reduce own fitness to increase that of another kin selection – altruistic behavior toward close relatives increases inclusive fitness because kin share genes eusocial societies – extremely altruistic colonies (bees, ants, (b termites, naked mole rats) Worker bees never bees never reproduce. We live only to serve our sister queen. Inclusive fitness accounts for most altruistic social behavior inclusive fitness – total effect individual has on proliferating its genes (own offspring plus helping other close relatives) coefficient of relatedness – probability that if two individuals share parent or ancestor, a particular gene will also be shared I would lay down my life to save two brothers or eight cousins. [Haldane] [Haldane] When times are tough, Scrub Jays may help raise younger siblings. younger siblings Wilson, Sociobiology learning – modification of behavior based on specific experiences habituation – loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey very little information associative learning – ability to associate one feature of the environment with another Zebra fish (prey) learn to Zebra fish (prey) learn to associate associate pike odor with the presence of the predator itself. associative learning – ability to associate one feature of the environment with another classical conditioning – arbitrary stimulus associated with reward or punishment reward or punishment “Look, if it was electric, could I do this?” associative learning – ability to associate one feature of the environment with another operant conditioning – animal learns to associate one of its own behaviors with reward or punishment with reward or punishment (trial & error learning) cognition – ability of animal’s nervous system to perceive, store, process & use information gathered by sensory receptors intelligence (corvids) - causal reasoning - innovation; tool use - imagination - planning ahead Nature Animal Minds Scene 3: Insight (7 minutes) minutes) http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/306/5703/1903 w m g f 0 N.J. Emery & N.S. Clayton self-recognition – ability to distinguish between self and other; a prerequisite for self-awareness, empathy, subjective experience; consciousness very young children young children and most animals cannot pass the “mirror test” I’m Koko the gorilla. Koko the gorilla My vocabulary (in ASL) exceeds1000 words. http://www.janegoodall.org/blogs/ngeo-video-self-recognition-apes http://www.koko.org/index.php http://www.pnas.org/content/98/10/5937.full.pdf+html?sid=ff0ba329-2d46-45f6-b1cb-baf89faa2a00 http://www.empathogens.com/empathy/happy-elephant.html http://www.empathogens.com/empathy/happy-elephant.html http://www.pnas.org/content/103/45/17053.full.pdf+html?sid=e4691699-c360-4a4b-9a03-73de97b8ea61 http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060202 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HRVGA9zxXzk social learning – learning through observing others Female guppies exhibit mate choice copying – they prefer popular males even over colorful ones! social learning – learning through observing others culture – system of information transfer through social learning that influences behavior within the population Young vervet monkeys perfect their predator-specific predatoralarm calls by following the example of adult role models alarm calls by following the example of adult role models. http://www.wjh.harvard.edu/~mnkylab/media/vervetcalls.html social learning – learning through observing others culture – system of information transfer through social learning that influences behavior within the population http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HrGr8-g1cik http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-euMlL9O1Kc ...
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