23-ch38-conservation - Chapter 38 Conservation Biology Bi...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 38 Conservation Biology Bi “Mr. Osborne, may I be excused? My brain is full.” Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow & chemical cycling energy flow – passage of energy through the ecosystem flow of energy through ecosystem chemical cycling – transfer of materials within the ecosystem how are these different? why? food web – the elaborate, interconnected feeding relationships in an ecosystem (accounts for more complexity than food chain) biological magnification – toxins become more concentrated at higher levels in the food web Poisoned Waters: Ch7 55-1:05 55http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/poisonedwaters/view dichlorodiphenydichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) Are mercury levels in tuna really dangerous? Biogeochemical Biogeochemical cycles include biotic & abiotic components abiotic reservoir – chemical accumulates or is stockpiled outside reservoir accumulates or is stockpiled outside of living organisms oceans, lakes, aquifers the atmosphere (Nitrogen) rock (Calcium, Phosophorus) leaf litter, soil, fossil fuels, peat bogs (Carbon) The The Carbon Cycle • greenhouse effect vs. global warming effect vs global warming • acceleration of the Carbon cycle • acidification of oceans • Carbon “sinks” & deforestation... sinks deforestation... Justices Say E.P.A. Has Power to Act on Harmful Gases http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/03/washington/03scotus.html Methane Causes Vicious Cycle In Global Warming Can Corals Survive In A Warming World? http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=122638800 http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=111757927 Atmospheric Atmospheric ozone protects earth from solar UV radiation due to damage to the ozone shield, chlorofluorocarbons have been th ozone banned by many nations Atmospheric Atmospheric ozone protects earth from solar UV radiation Antarctic Ozone “hole” Ozone hole consequences to human health include: skin cancer, cataracts include: skin cancer, cataracts phytoplankton (primary productivity) is vulnerable damage will continue for ~100 years in the absence of new CFCs Three major threats to biodiversity Great Smoky Mountains habitat destruction habitat destruction – for agriculture, urban agriculture urban development, forestry, mining (& by pollution); fragmentation into “islands” overexploitation – unsustainable harvest of resources leads to population crash, sometimes community-level effects devastating invasives: purple loosetrife, kudzu Carolina Parakeet – hunted to extinction for ladies hats biological invasions – native species killed via competition, predation, pathogen vectors http://www.pbs.org/nationalparks Species Species transplants & their their community level consequences community level consequences “It’s a letter from Julio in America. His banana bunch arrived safely and he’s living in the back room of some grocery store.” Conservation Conservation strategies: focus on a single species large predators require extensive home ranges to sustain population sizes; conserving habitat to preserve umbrella species can protect umbrella many others at lower trophic levels in the same community identification; priority conservation of identification; priority conservation of keystone keystone & dominant species may prevent collapse of ecosystem public support is enlisted to preserve biodiversity by conserving habitat for biodiversity by conserving habitat for charismatic flagship charismatic flagship species minimum viable population size for long term survival size for long term survival... more land than the park itself Conservation strategies: focus on priority ecosystems bidiversity hot spot – relatively small area with exceptional concentration of endemic, endangered & threatened species http://www.biodiversityhotspots.org/xp/Hotspots/pages/map.aspx sustainable development – long-term planning to balance human quality of life & economic concerns with sustainable resource use & biological conservation shade grown coffee Maya nut http://www.cnn.com/2009/TECH/science/04/16/cnnheroes.erika.vohman/index.html?iref=mpstoryview#cnnSTCVideo zoned reserve – extensive region of land with different levels of protection / land use practices La Amistad Biosphere Reserve (Costa Rica) is a world model Applications of landscape ecology movement corridor – connection corridor of habitat islands for dispersal & migration of organisms Despite the design of successful toad tunnels in Europe... http://www.thedailyshow.com/video/index.jhtml?videoId=126343&title=tunnel-vision Services provided to humans by the ecosystem • purification of air & water • reduction in severity of weather, droughts, floods • generation & preservation of fertile soils • detoxification / decomposition of wastes • pollination of crops, natural vegetation • dispersal of seeds • cycling of nutrients • biological control of agricultural pests • erosion prevention • protection from ultraviolet radiation • aesthetic & recreational opportunities Damage control Kissimmee River Ri http://www.takingrootfilm.com http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zzikL5MJWCg restoration ecology – applied use of ecology to return degraded ecology use of ecology to return degraded ecosystems to functioning conditions - rivers (remove dams, canals) - reforestation - rehabilitation of coastal ecosystems Damage control bioremediation – use of living organism (e.g., prokaryotes, fungi, plants) to detoxify polluted ecosystems some plants absorb heavy metals from contaminated soil bacteria clean-up oil spills clean- http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/29915669/ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/30435640/ Poisoned Waters: Ch10 1:19-1:25 1:19http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/poisonedwaters/view reduce reduce runoff & erosion with permeable paver blocks or porous asphalt Bright idea: reduce lawn size (& care) by lanscaping with native plants! http://www.ci.arlington.tx.us/environmentalservices/environmental_recommendedplants.html http://marketplace.publicradio.org/www_publicradio/tools/media_player/popup.php?name=marketplace/pm/2010/04/12/marketplace_cast1_20100412_64&starttime=00:21:52.0&endtime=00:27:07.0 Re-imagining Manhattan… MOMA “Rising Tides” exhibit explores innovative technological solutions to technological solutions to protect New York City from storm surges that may result from global warming… http://moma.org/explore/inside_out/risinghttp://moma.org/explore/inside_out/rising-currents coming coming soon: Center Street Green (sustainable landscape program) at our new Special Events Center! http://www.uta.edu/sustainability/news/ http://policy.uta.edu/index.php?navid=16880 Reminder: we will watch a movie in class for six bonus points (please print handout posted on on WebCT and bring it to class next week). https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/lan/en/participate.html You can become part of this study! (visit the link above for details) Recommended Recommended reading: a biologist takes on the tough questions of history (The roots of human inequality may lie in our geography!) http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel w g m http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bgnmT-Y_rGQ Recommended Recommended reading: Has our evolutionary history left us unprepared for civilization and a modern lifestyle? To To keep every cog and wheel is the first precaution to intelligent tinkering. — Aldo Leopold The Earth provides enough to satisfy every man's need, but not every man's greed. but — M Gandhi We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors; we we borrow it from our children. — Native American Proverb ...
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