In the meantime, Spitamenes continued to stir trouble in other areas, so Alexander sent a small troop, led by Pharnuches, to take care of the situation. Pharnuches underestimated Spitamenes considerably. Spitamenes successfully lured Pharnuches to another territory where Spitamenes obtained further support, leaving the Macedonians surrounded. It is reported that not a single Macedonian escaped death in what was perhaps the first–and only–major defeat of Alexander's career. Though the blame falls largely on Pharnuches and his ineptitude, Alexander himself failed to appreciate the strength of Spitamenes' force, and his error in calculation was the ultimate cause of this defeat. Spitamenes fled with his troops when Alexander's army made for their direction, but the fact remained that Spitamenes controlled most of Sogdiana. Alexander appointed Coenus, one of his generals, to supervise the rebel's activity while the Macedonians
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This note was uploaded on 12/12/2011 for the course HIST 1320 taught by Professor Murphy during the Fall '08 term at Texas State.