The situation abroad, however, would be more complicated. Athens was thrilled to learn of Philip's death, seeing it as an opportunity to revolt. The famous Athenian orator Demosthenes immediately wrote to Attalus and Parmenion, one of Philip's most loyal lieutenants, to offer Athens's support and to urge them to declare war on Alexander. Although Attalus had to take this opportunity to save his own life, Alexander knew that Parmenion could be won over, and that success in doing so would greatly strengthen his power. While negotiations continued, Alexander took action against states that threatened to defect. Despite warnings against brashness, Alexander knew that he could not show any signs of weakness at this crucial moment. Therefore, he soon brought Thessaly and others into line, convincing them that cooperation would be the wisest decision. Thebes presented a greater obstacle, as it was naturally averse to Macedonian rule.
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