After the execution of King Charles I, Oliver Cromwell was the undisputed leader of Parliament. A Council of State was created in the House of Commons in 1649, with Cromwell as its first chairman. In that capacity, he endorsed the executions of four Royalist leaders who had resisted the new regime in 1648: the Duke of Hamilton, the Earl of Holland, Lord Capel, and Colonel Poyer. The Parliament of 1649–1653 was known as the Rump Parliament, and was plagued by the conflicting views of its members, some of whom favored a purely republican form of government, while others hoped for the restoration of a monarchic power. Cromwell's primary goal in 1649 was to foster unity among his fellows, and he negotiated with the more conservative members by taking a hard line against radical republican groups like the Levellers. In the spring of 1649, the Levellers became restless, and mutiny broke out among the
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