Following his failure to induce political action, Bohr urged the scientific community to take the first steps toward cooperation. He hoped that prewar bonds could be reestablished and strengthened, so that physics itself could lay the foundation for international cooperation. In 1951 Bohr called a meeting of Institute alumni. Representatives of fourteen European countries met in Copenhagen to plan the Conseil Européenne Recherche Nucléaire (CERN), of which Bohr became chairman. The program called for a research facility that would cost about $28 million, and the Geneva establishment would undoubtedly become the most advanced European institute devoted to research free of commercial and military influence. 1955 saw the meeting of the Atoms for Peace Conference, where 1,200 delegates from seventy-two nations convened in Geneva. Two years later an Atoms for Peace award
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