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In addition to the threats posed by a fractured government

In addition to the threats posed by a fractured government...

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In addition to the threats posed by a fractured government, Cromwell feared the  possibility of a royalist invasion from Scotland or Ireland. Charles I's son, Charles Stuart,  the future King Charles II, was in exile, and there were great numbers of people in  Ireland and Scotland who still viewed him as their rightful King. In order to preempt a  royalist uprising, the English decided on sending an expedition into Ireland to crush the  possibility of a royalist upsurge in that country, and 1649, Cromwell was named  commander of the expedition. He departed for Ireland with his army in August of that  year. Oliver Cromwell hated the Irish, largely because their loyalty to the Roman Catholic  Church. He also desired to exact revenge on the Irish for a massacre of English  Protestants that had occurred there in 1641. Cromwell's January 1650 Declaration to the 
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