Parliament's army eventually defeated the King and his supporters, the Royalists, and Cromwell emerged from the Civil War as a bona fide hero. By the late 1640s, Cromwell effectively became the leader of Parliament's army, which he consolidated into a single force known as the New Model Army. After the execution of Charles I in January 1649, Cromwell's influence over the military made him a powerful political figure, and he assumed the prestigious position of first chairman of the new Council of State. For the next few years, Cromwell further bolstered his reputation by leading a series of military campaigns in both Ireland and Scotland. His campaign in Ireland was particularly brutal, and Cromwell's troops massacred several thousand civilians, often with Cromwell's consent, even instigation. When he returned to Parliament in 1653, Cromwell was disgusted with the constant debating, and used the Army to forcibly
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