The heart of Aristotle's work in natural philosophy comprises four central works: Physics, On the Heavens, On Coming-to-be and Passing- away, and Meteorology. Spanning eight books, Physics, has little to do with what we know as "physics" and is more properly characterized as natural science. The first book modifies the traditional understanding of first principles. Most natural philosophers had assumed that first principles would be contraries–rare and dense, solid and void. But to this Aristotle would add a third principle, called the substratum. Two opposites cannot act upon each other; rather, they presuppose a substance. The substratum furnishes the substance to be acted on by the contraries. Thus, when a given substratum undergoes a change, there are actually three components involved. Matter consists of the substratum itself, form consists of the change undergone, and a third element called privation is presupposed
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