When Alexander died in 323 B.C., Aristotle wisely retreated to the pro- Macedonian base of Chalcis. He was reportedly trying to save the Athenians from sinning twice against philosophy (the first sin being the execution of Socrates). He died there in 322 of a disease of the digestive organs. Following Socrates and Plato, Aristotle had a great wealth of knowledge and wisdom to build upon, but he left no successor who could surpass him. His work changed the direction of Western learning and continues to play a very real part in modern studies. His work in the sciences would inevitably become obsolete, particular in natural philosophy. But his contributions to biology would remain unsurpassed for centuries. On the other hand, his work in the humanities and social sciences continues to provide the basis for debate and guide academic learning. Moreover, he essentially created the field of logic and devised the syllogism. The one
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