When Parliament came back into session in the fall of 1657, it proved to be less cooperative than the parliament that had passed the Humble Petition. In this later session, the hundred members who had previously been barred were permitted to return, and they continued their fierce opposition to Cromwell. Furthermore, some of Cromwell's former allies–Independents like Wharton, Saye, and Sele–declined his invitations for cooperation. In January 1858, renewed opposition from the republican members of Parliament further upset Cromwell's plans for the government. A republican-inspired petition calling for the abolition of the Protectorate and for the rule of a single-house Parliament found great support in London, particularly within the army. The day this petition was to be presented to the House of Commons, Cromwell rushed to Westminster and permanently dissolved Parliament.
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