basic-bacteriology

basic-bacteriology - PAUL A. GULIG, PH.D. INTRODUCTION TO...

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PAUL A. GULIG, PH.D. INTRODUCTION TO BACTERIOLOGY Lectures January 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 Discussions January 6, 13 Office - R1-250, 392-0050 Lab R1-144, 392-0682 email: gulig@ufl.edu
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BACTERIA (prokaryotes) VS. EUKARYOTES Cell Structure: Bacteria Eukaryotic Organization Unicellular Unicellular/Multicellular Cell Membrane: transport, motility, transport oxidative phosphorylation, DNA replication Endocytosis/Exocytosis - + Intracellular Membranes: - + (Nucleus, Golgi, Mitochondria, Endoplasmic Reticulum) Cytoskeletal: Microfilaments - + Microtubules - + Cell wall Peptidoglycan - Genetics: Chromosomes 1 (2: Vibrios, Neisseria) >1 Topology Circular Linear Segregation Cell membrane Mitotic spindle Transcription/ coupled in Transcription - nucleus Translation cytoplasm Translation - cytoplasm mRNA capping, - + poly-A Introns (-) + Cistron structure Mono + Polycistronic Monocistronic Ribosome 70S (50S + 30S) 80S (60S + 40S) Genetic Transformation, Meiosis, Zygote fusion Exchange Transduction, Conjugation
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Bacterial structure Small (1-8 microns) Shapes (important for identification and making diagnosis) Others ( vibrios, filamentous, coccobacilli )
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Envelope structure is unique to prokaryotes Cell wall rigid structure surrounding the cell membrane Functions : prevent osmotic lysis protect cell from external stresses (host) contributes to virulence target for antimicrobials
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Gram stain gram-positive (blue) gram-negative (pink) Acid fast stain acid fast (red on blue) Wall-less doesn’t stain - need special stain
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thick peptidoglycan cell wall (40+ layers of chain link fence) resist lysis by complement, but still can be opsonized teichoic acids and lipoteichoic acids other proteins and carbohydrates (fibrillar layer, carbohydrate capsule). Gram-positive structure
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Teichoic acid Ribitol or glycerol phosphate + side chains
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outer membrane - a second lipid bilayer periplasmic space between inner (cytoplasmic) and outer membrane single layer of peptidoglycan in periplasmic space Gram-negative structure porins enable diffusion across outer membrane • outer surface - lipopolysaccharide (LPS) , important in pathogenesis • Targeted by polymyxins
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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) – Endotoxin The most important part of gram-negative bacteria lipid A embedded in membrane = endotoxin activity unique C14 fatty acid - β -hydroxy myristic acid , phosphates, glucosamine recognized by TLR4 core oligosaccharide highly conserved among different bacteria unique components - KDO and heptose
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LPS Structure Smooth Rough ≤40 units Core oligosaccharide Outer Membrane Surface
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O antigen may be present or not, depending on species repeating units of 3 to 5 sugars smooth with O antigen rough without (ending at core) LPS of bacteria without O antigen sometimes called lipooligosaccharide (LOS) antigenic and highly variable among species and strains
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Acid fast structure - (Mycobacteria)
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basic-bacteriology - PAUL A. GULIG, PH.D. INTRODUCTION TO...

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