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Lecture Exam 3.docx - Respiratory System Two parts o...

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Respiratory SystemTwo partsoConduction portion: conducts air from the environment to the lungs; moistens, warms,and filters the airNose, trachea, bronchi, pharynx, sinuses, larynx, turbinates)Asthma, bronchitisoRespiratory portion: exchange of air between the lungs and bloodLungs and alveoliEmphysemaoFunctions:Gas exchangePumping fluids – blood, lymph, CSFMaintenance of pH – regulating CO2Excretion – toxic substancesComponentsoNares (nostrils), vestibule, nasal cavity, nasal conchae (filtration system), fibrise (hairsin the nostrils), pharynx (throat: naso, oro, laryngo), larynx (air), esophagus (food),tracheal cartilage, epiglottis, carina (cough reflex),Types of RespirationoPulmonary ventilation: gases between lungs and environmentoExternal respiration: gases between lungs and bloodoInternal respiration: gases between blood and cellsoCellular respiration: when the cell makes energyStructures of the noseThe SinusesoFrontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillaryoFunctionsCleanse/ moisten airResonate chambers for soundVolume reserveoSinusitis: inflamed sinuses**orifice of the auditory (Eustachian) tube is in the nasopharynxThe PharynxoAllows for drainage of structures of the skull, pressure equalization in the skull, speechoNasopharynx:oOropharynx:oLaryngopharynx:The LarynxoGlottis is the opening surrounded by the larynxoFalse vocal cords: support true vocal cords, prevents foreign objects from enteringglottisoTrue vocal cords:oLaryngitis: bacterial, viral, overuse, irritant
oCancer of the throatAnatomy and Physiology of SpeechoForceful muscle contractions = higher pitchoLess forceful contractions = lower pitchoHormones, shape and sinuses, skill, and nose all contribute to voice soundsAnatomy of the EarThe TracheaoCartilage rings are C shaped with trachealis muscle posterioroANS will control muscle to alter diameter of tracheaThe BronchioRight and left primary bronchiIf someone has aspirated, you should look at the right side because it’s shorter,wider, and more vertically orientedoCarina:cough reflexoArborization = bronchisecondary bronchitertiary bronchibronchiolesterminal bronchiolesalveolioAlveoli: gas exchange between the blood and the environmentThree cell typesType I Septal Cell:makes up the sack itself; involved with gas exchange betType II Septal Cell:produces surfactant which decreases surface tension of waterand fluids in the lungs, prevents collapse (atelectasis)

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Term
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atelectasis

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