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Chapter 21 (1) - Chapter 21 Microbial Diseases of the...

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Chapter 21 Microbial Diseases of the Respiratory System Structure of the respiratory system Upper respiratory system Nose Pharynx (throat) Middle ear and auditory tubes Lower respiratory system Larynx (voice box) Trachea (windpipe) Bronchial tubes - Lungs (alveoli –sac) Respiratory System Function of the respiratory system: Upper respiratory system: Collects air, filters contaminants from the air, and delivers it to the lower respiratory organs Lower respiratory system: Exchange of gases The Normal Microbiota Upper Respiratory System: The normal microbiota prevents the growth of pathogenic organisms. Some normal microbiota are opportunistic pathogens. Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria meningitidis, Diphtheroids (colonize the nose and nasal cavity) Lower Respiratory System: Typically microorganisms are not present How the microbes are prevented of reaching the lungs? Particles (microbes) are removed from larynx, trachea and bronchial tubes by ciliary escalator (first line of defense) Cilia propel particles upward Microbes reaching the lungs are removed by phagocytosis VIRAL DISEASES OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM The Common Cold - Rhinitis Caused by 200 different viruses (Rhinoviruses, Coronaviruses) Immunity is accumulated during the lifetime Symptoms: sneezing, nasal secretion, congestion Primary infection is in the throat but can spread to the lower respiratory system and the middle ear The Common Cold Virus is transmitted by air and hands to the nose mucous membrane Recovery time is about one week Antibiotics are not useful Ear Infection – Acute Otitis Media Result of rhinitis Viral infection causes inflammation of eustachian tubes – accumulation of fluid Becomes the site of bacterial infection Streptococcus pneumoniae; Haemophilus influenzae Treatment: Broad-spectrum antibiotics
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Streptococcal pharyngitis (Strep throat) Causative agent: S. pyogenes Symptoms: Inflammation of throat mucous membrane, lymph nodes (tonsillitis), difficulty swallowing
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