Chapter 23 - Chapter 23 Microbial Diseases of the Urinary...

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Microbial Diseases of the Urinary and Reproductive System STRUCTURES OF THE URINARY SYSTEM Components of the urinary system Kidneys Remove waste from the blood and excrete them in urine Nephrons are the functional unit of the kidneys Responsible for filtering the blood to form urine Ureters- urine travels to the urinary bladder Urinary bladder-stores urine until it can be eliminated Urethra-site of urine excretion Normal Microbiota of the Urinary and Reproductive System Urethra Colonized by some microorganisms Primary species include Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus Remainder of the urinary organs are sterile Male reproductive system The regions above the prostate are sterile Female reproductive system The vagina is colonized by various microorganisms depending on hormone levels (Lactobacillus, corynebacteria, cocci. ..) BACTERIAL DISEASES OF THE URINARY SYSTEM Examples of bacterial diseases of the urinary system Bacterial urinary tract infections - Cystitis Leptospirosis Streptococcal acute glomerulonephritis Cystitis Causative agents: E. coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, and Pseudomonas. Portal of entry: Urethra - often by self-inoculation with fecal bacteria Females more susceptible - due to short urethra that is close to the anus Signs/Symptoms: Frequent, urgent and painful urination; urine may be cloudy Diagnosis: Analysis of urine Treatment: Antimicrobial drugs Pyelonephritis If cystitis not treated – progresses to Pyelonephritis- inflammation of kidneys, back pain Causative agent: E. coli Bacteremia Potentially life-threatening Treatment: intravenous antibiotics Leptospirosis Causative agent: Leptospira interrogans
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Chapter 23 - Chapter 23 Microbial Diseases of the Urinary...

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