fiu microChapter 9 (Autosaved)

fiu microChapter 9 (Autosaved) - Chapter 9 Microbial...

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Chapter 9 Microbial Genetics What is genetics? The science of heredity Research in Genetics takes place on several levels: - organismal - cell - chromosome - molecular Where genetics material can be found? Genetic information is contained within genetic material-DNA and RNA It can be found in Prokaryote Organism - chromosome - plasmids Eukaryotic organism - chromosome - mitochondria - chloroplast - Plasmids Virus - DNA - RNA Some definitions chromosome cellular structure-package DNA molecule Gene-a segment of DNA that codes for functional product(protein) Genotype the sum of all genes- genetics make up phemotype-manifestation of genotype(ability to perform particular chemical reaction) The size and packaging of genomes E.coli 4,288 genes human cell: 25,000-30,000 genes Size of the cell of Ecoli 1UM(diameter) size of the stretched out DNA-1mm(1000times longer) DNA molecule is tightly packed in the form of chromosome Structure of DNA DNA molecule-double helix composed of nucleotides nucleotides composed of - bases: - purine(adenine,guanine pyrumidine(cytosine,thymine) - deoxyribose sugar - Phosphate group Single strands of DNA have opposite orientation(3’ and 5’)
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Structure of nucleic acids G-C held together with 3 hydrogen bonds A-T held by 2 hydrogen bonds DNA Replication-overall process double helix unwinds-unzipping hydrogen bonds bases of single stranded DNA exposed Replication fork is formed synthesis of the new strand by attachment of complimentary nucleotides Enzyme involve in DNA replication helicase- untwist the DNA helix by braking the H bonds primase- synthesis of RNA primer DNA polymerase III-adding bases to the new DNA ligace-joining of the DNA fragments Gyrace-supercoiling Details of re[lication short RNA primer attaches to the origin of replication Complementary nucleotides attach themselves to the exposed bases A-T C-G DNA polymerase III joins the added nucleotide into a growing DNA strand and one new strand) DNA Re[lication leading strand is synthesized continuously lagging strand is synthesized in pieces(Okazakinfragments) The strands are synthesized in the 5’to 3’ direction DNA polymerase I removed I removes RAN primers Lygase joins the fragements DNA replication is bidirectional The Flow of Genetic Information DNA replication-reproduction of cells transcription- information contained within DNA is copied RNA translation-polypeptides synthesized from RNA nucleotide sequences amino acid sequence of protein The difference between DNA and RNA DNA RNA Sugar component: desoxyribose ribose G-------------------------------------------C C-------------------------------------------G T--------------------------------------------A A--------------------------------------------U(uracil) Transcription Synthesis of RNA from DNA as a template Message RNA(mRNA) is formed by transcription of a portion of DNA(gene)
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fiu microChapter 9 (Autosaved) - Chapter 9 Microbial...

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