Mineral_Properties_F11

Mineral_Properties_F11 - 1 Mineral Properties GLY 4200...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Mineral Properties GLY 4200 - Lecture 2 –Fall, 2011 2 Hardness • Hardness may be measured in several ways Moh’s scale – developed by Austrian mineralogist Friedrich Mohs in 1824 Absolute scales – Brinell, Knoop, Rockwell, Vicker’s 3 Moh’s Scale • 1 Talc • 2 Gypsum • 3 Calcite • 4 Fluorite • Apatite • 6 Orthoclase • 7 Quartz • 8 Topaz • 9 Corundum • 10 Diamond 4 Practical Scale • Fingernail 2.2 • Copper penny 3.2 • Pocket knife 5.1 • Glass 5.5 • Steel file 6.5 • Streak plate 7 5 Moh’s Scale Versus Absolute Hardness 6 Tenacity • Brittle • Ductile • Elastic • Flexible • Malleable 7 Cleavage Causes • In some minerals, bonds between layers of atoms aligned in certain directions are weaker than bonds between different layers • In other minerals, the number of bonds per unit area (bond density) is low • In these cases, breakage occurs along smooth, flat surfaces parallel to those zones of weakness 8 Multiple Cleavage Directions • In some minerals, a single direction of weakness exists, but in others, two, three, four, or as many as six may be present 9 Cleavage Angles • Where more than one direction of cleavage is present, it is important to determine the angular relation between the resulting cleavage surfaces: are they perpendicular to each other (right angle), or do they meet at an acute or obtuse angle? 10 Cleavage Illustration • Various types of cleavage • One directional cleavage is sometimes called “basal” cleavage 11 Basal Cleavage • Cleavage in biotite mica 12 [email protected] • Amphibole 13 [email protected] • Orthoclase 14 3-D not @ 90º • Calcite • Picture also illustrates double refraction 15 American and British Systems • American Perfect Good Fair Poor • British Eminent Perfect Distinct Imperfect 16 Perfect • Mica 17 Good • Fluorite – 4 directions 18 Fair • Augite, a type of pyroxene 19 Poor • Apatite 20...
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This note was uploaded on 12/12/2011 for the course GLY 4200c taught by Professor Warburton during the Fall '10 term at FAU.

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Mineral_Properties_F11 - 1 Mineral Properties GLY 4200...

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