Mineral_Properties_F11

Mineral_Properties_F11 - 1 Mineral Properties GLY 4200 -...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Mineral Properties GLY 4200 - Lecture 2 Fall, 2011 2 Hardness Hardness may be measured in several ways Mohs scale developed by Austrian mineralogist Friedrich Mohs in 1824 Absolute scales Brinell, Knoop, Rockwell, Vickers 3 Mohs Scale 1 Talc 2 Gypsum 3 Calcite 4 Fluorite Apatite 6 Orthoclase 7 Quartz 8 Topaz 9 Corundum 10 Diamond 4 Practical Scale Fingernail 2.2 Copper penny 3.2 Pocket knife 5.1 Glass 5.5 Steel file 6.5 Streak plate 7 5 Mohs Scale Versus Absolute Hardness 6 Tenacity Brittle Ductile Elastic Flexible Malleable 7 Cleavage Causes In some minerals, bonds between layers of atoms aligned in certain directions are weaker than bonds between different layers In other minerals, the number of bonds per unit area (bond density) is low In these cases, breakage occurs along smooth, flat surfaces parallel to those zones of weakness 8 Multiple Cleavage Directions In some minerals, a single direction of weakness exists, but in others, two, three, four, or as many as six may be present 9 Cleavage Angles Where more than one direction of cleavage is present, it is important to determine the angular relation between the resulting cleavage surfaces: are they perpendicular to each other (right angle), or do they meet at an acute or obtuse angle? 10 Cleavage Illustration Various types of cleavage One directional cleavage is sometimes called basal cleavage 11 Basal Cleavage Cleavage in biotite mica 12 2-D@60 Amphibole 13 2-D@90 Orthoclase 14 3-D not @ 90 Calcite Picture also illustrates double refraction 15 American and British Systems American Perfect Good Fair Poor British Eminent Perfect Distinct Imperfect 16 Perfect Mica 17 Good Fluorite 4 directions 18 Fair Augite, a type of pyroxene 19 Poor Apatite 20...
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Mineral_Properties_F11 - 1 Mineral Properties GLY 4200 -...

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