Lecture5-WordSegmentation1

Lecture5-WordSegmentation1 - Computational Problem Psych...

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Psych 215L: Language Acquisition Lecture 5 Word Segmentation Computational Problem Divide spoken speech into words húw z ə fr é jd ə v ðə b ɪ ́ g bQ ́ dw ə́ lf Computational Problem Divide spoken speech into words who‘s afraid of the big bad wolf húw z ə fr é jd ə v ðə b ɪ ́ g bQ ́ d w ə́ lf húw z ə fr é jd ə v ðə b ɪ ́ g bQ ́ dw ə́ lf Word Segmentation “One task faced by all language learners is the segmentation of fluent speech into words. This process is particularly difficult because word boundaries in fluent speech are marked inconsistently by discrete acoustic events such as pauses…it is not clear what information is used by infants to discover word boundaries…there is no invariant cue to word boundaries present in all languages.” - Saffran, Aslin, & Newport (1996)
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Statistical Information Available Maybe infants are sensitive to the statistical patterns contained in sequences of sounds. “Over a corpus of speech there are measurable statistical regularities that distinguish recurring sound sequences that comprise words from the more accidental sound sequences that occur across word boundaries.” - Saffran, Aslin, & Newport (1996) to the castle beyond the goblin city Statistical Information Available Maybe infants are sensitive to the statistical patterns contained in sequences of sounds. “Over a corpus of speech there are measurable statistical regularities that distinguish recurring sound sequences that comprise words from the more accidental sound sequences that occur across word boundaries.” - Saffran, Aslin, & Newport (1996) Statistical regularity: ca + stle is a common sound sequence to the castle beyond the goblin city Statistical Information Available Maybe infants are sensitive to the statistical patterns contained in sequences of sounds. “Over a corpus of speech there are measurable statistical regularities that distinguish recurring sound sequences that comprise words from the more accidental sound sequences that occur across word boundaries.” - Saffran, Aslin, & Newport (1996) No regularity: stle + be is an accidental sound sequence word boundary to the castle beyond the goblin city Transitional Probability “Within a language, the transitional probability from one sound to the next will generally be highest when the two sounds follow one another in a word, whereas transitional probabilities spanning a word boundary will be relatively low.” - Saffran, Aslin, & Newport (1996) Transitional Probability = Conditional Probability TrProb(AB) = Prob( B | A) Transitional probability of sequence AB is the conditional probability of B, given that A has been encountered. TrProb(“gob” ”lin”) = Prob(“lin” | “gob”) Read as “the probability of ‘lin’, given that ‘gob’ has just been encountered”
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Transitional Probability “Within a language, the transitional probability from one sound to the next will generally be highest when the two sounds follow one another in a word, whereas transitional probabilities spanning a word boundary will be relatively low.”
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