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# lec6 - L ECTURE 6 P ROPERTIES OF VARIOUS F ORCES Gravity...

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L ECTURE 6: P ROPERTIES OF V ARIOUS F ORCES Gravity Normal force Friction Elastic forces

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For gravity, the force is proportional to the mass Hewitt.
Acceleration due to gravity is independent of mass Hewitt

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Air resistance can obscure that g=constant Wilson
Normal force is perpendicular to surface and variable in magnitude Hay.

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Friction is caused by microscopic forces Halliday & Resnick.
Friction always opposes the direction of motion Hach´e.

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Friction coefficients Materials Dynamic μ Static μ Rubber on concrete 0.8 0.8-4 Steel on steel 0.6 0.8 Wood on wood 0.2 Wax on snow (skiing) 0.1 Steel on ice (skating) 0.005 Ice on ice 0.003 Joints (knee, elbow, etc.) 0.003 Hach´e.
Kinetic friction is usually less than maximum static friction Benson.

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It’s easier to push a moving object Hay.
Use blocks because normal force is larger than friction Dyson.

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Friction on ice is miniscule–how do you skate? Hach´e.
Why is it easier to rock climb up a “chimney”? 1. I believe it is easier to climb a vertical/chimney because you can use not only your

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lec6 - L ECTURE 6 P ROPERTIES OF VARIOUS F ORCES Gravity...

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