BP11-Oct3 - • 1.2 ATP per average aa • 4 ATP to add...

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k B T Measure of Thermal Energy k B T = 4.1 x 10 -21 J k B T = 0.6 kcal/mol Biochemical reactions k B T = 4 pN nm Molecular forces k B T = 25 meV Charges (especially in membranes) • Nature needs to “beat” this level of energy • enters in chemical kinetics: • determines probabilities: P(E) = e K A->B = c e -G barrier /k B T -E/k B T
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Diffusion t Diffusion = x 2 /D D: diffusion constant D <= 100 μ m 2 /s for typical proteins Time to diffuse across E. coli? Time to diffuse along the squid giant axon? Speed up I: Concentration
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Speed up II: Active Transport Spend energy to gain speed
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Covalent bond: 150 k B T
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Common energy forms I: ATP 20 k B T
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Bioenergetic Apparatus of Purple Bacteria LH-II LH-I cytochrome c 2 ATPase cytoplasm periplasm ADP ATP h ν bc 1 H + H + e - Q/QH 2 /Q RC
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Common energy forms II: NADH Phosphorylation determines shape and catalytic activity, but not energy
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Common energy forms III: ions
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Glycolytic pathway 1 glucose can produce up to 30 ATP
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Molecules for glycolytic pathway
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Energy for glycolytic pathway
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Energy for building a cell
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Energy for building a cell
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Unformatted text preview: • 1.2 ATP per average aa • 4 ATP to add each aa • 5.2 ATP/aa x 300 x 3 10 6 = 4.5 10 9 ATP • 10-20 ATP/nucleotide • Relatively low assembly cost for DNA Energy for building a cell About 10 10 ATP equiv = 6 x 10 8 glucose energy cost (can by up to 10x higher for less efficient growing conditions) But: 0.15 pg (assume half of mass is carbon) = 10 10 C atoms 2 x 10 9 glucose molecules needed to provide carbons Animation • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi? it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/0072437316 /120076/micro04.swf::DNA%20Replication %20Fork The end replication problem From Molecular Biology of the gene • Each DNA replication, end of DNA loses 50~100 nt. • Lose genes near the end of chromosome Solutions? • Circular chromosomes (bacteria) • telomeres Elizabeth Blackburn Carol Greider Jack Szostak Elizabeth Blackburn Carol Greider Jack Szotak...
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This note was uploaded on 12/12/2011 for the course PHYS 146a taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at UC Irvine.

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BP11-Oct3 - • 1.2 ATP per average aa • 4 ATP to add...

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