BP11-Sep30 - Time in Biology t = 3000 s (fastest: t = 1000...

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Time in Biology
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t = 3000 s (fastest: t = 1000 s; variation up to a factor of 10)
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Procedural Time I: Central Dogma DNA polymerase: 250-1000 bp/s Required time for DNA replication? RNA polymerase: 40 bp/s typical transcript time? Ribosome: 25 aa/s Typical translation time? Required time to build all proteins?
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How to get 1000x more proteins than mRNA
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Procedural Time II: Clocks and Oscillators
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Mostly, clocks work with synthesis/degradation of proteins, but simpler mechanisms have been realized, e.g. phosphorylation
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Cell Cycle: driven by cyclin-dependent kinases
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Diurnal clock in net-casting spiders: increase light sensitivity by 1000x
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Relative Time Establishing patterns in time Order of processes: A before B
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Gene regulatory networks: Collections of Genes Whose Expression is Interrelated Repression Activation
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One standard technique:DNA microarrays X-Y array with different DNA fragments Break up cell: hybridize mRNA/cDNA contents Tag bound molecules Measure fluorescence (need an idea which DNA fragments to use)
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Example: Cell Cycle
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BP11-Sep30 - Time in Biology t = 3000 s (fastest: t = 1000...

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