10-28-11 - Chemistry 1A F11 10.28.11 Dr. Shaka...

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178 Chemistry 1A F11 10.28.11 Dr. Shaka Course Code 40000 Representative General Trends • Oxides are basic on the left (pH > 7) and then become more acidic as we move toward the halogens. • For example, CaO is basic, CO 2 is mildly acidic (becomes H 2 CO 3 when it dissolves). • Going down a column, elements become more metallic. • For example, sulfur is a crumbly yellow solid that does not conduct electricity, whereas polonium is a solid, metallic element that does conduct electricity.
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179 Chemistry 1A F11 10.28.11 Dr. Shaka Course Code 40000 Group Chemistry • Group 1A is the alkali metals (and maybe H). • These elements are soft, silvery, highly reactive, and always found in nature in the as +1 cations (oxidation state +1). • This is because their electronegativity is very low. • They form ionic salts with most other elements, esp. the halogens (F, Cl, Br, etc. ) • Their oxides are very basic , pH > 7 in solution. That is why they are called “alkali”. • Their hydroxides are very soluble.
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180 Chemistry 1A F11 10.28.11 Dr. Shaka Course Code 40000 Group Chemistry • Group 2A is the alkaline earth metals. • These elements are somewhat soft, quite
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10-28-11 - Chemistry 1A F11 10.28.11 Dr. Shaka...

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