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11-28-11 - Chemistry 1A F11 11.28.11 Dr Shaka Mental...

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312 Chemistry 1A F11 11.28.11 Dr. Shaka Course Code 40000 Mental Arithmetic How’d he do that? Compute the square root of 77. Step one. Make an easier problem. Find x such that x 2 = 77. Step two. Get the first digit. 9 2 = 81, 8 2 = 64, so the first digit is 9. Step three. Make a correction: 9 + y ( ) 2 = 77 81 + 2 y *9 + y 2 = 77
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313 Chemistry 1A F11 11.28.11 Dr. Shaka Course Code 40000 Mental Arithmetic Step 4. Simplify the correction. 18 y + y 2 = " 4 # 18 y $ " 4 y = " 2 9 Step 5. Figure out the sum. 9 + " 2 9 = 9 " 0.222... = 8.77777...,
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314 Chemistry 1A F11 11.28.11 Dr. Shaka Course Code 40000 Mental Arithmetic Step 6. Get the next correction. 9 " 2 9 # $ % & ( 2 = 77 + 4 81 ) 8.7777 " y 2 ( ) 2 = 77 ) ~ 2*9* y 2 = 4 /81 y 2 = 2/729 Step 7. Figure out the sum. 9 + " 2 9 " 2 729 = 9 " 0.222 " 0.0027 = 8.775...,
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315 Chemistry 1A F11 11.28.11 Dr. Shaka Course Code 40000 MO Picture for O 2 We slot in our eight electrons as follows:
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316 Chemistry 1A F11 11.28.11 Dr. Shaka Course Code 40000 MO Picture for O 2 Electrons always spread out, with the same spin (magnetic) orientation if the orbitals have the same energy. Thus the bond order for O 2 is (1/2)(6-2) = 2 (a double bond), but the molecule is paramagnetic: liquid oxygen will stick to a magnet. The Lewis picture cannot capture this fact, and this is why MO is considered superior, even in these simple cases.
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317 Chemistry 1A F11 11.28.11 Dr. Shaka Course Code 40000
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