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download - AIDS FUNDAMENTALS Immunology continued Oct 4...

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AIDS FUNDAMENTALS Immunology, continued Oct. 4, 2011 Dr. Althea Capul, Ph.D. [email protected]
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Humoral Immunity and Antibody B lymphocytes respond to foreign antigen by making antibody. Anti body-gen erating molecule The generation of antigen-specific antibody is part of the humoral immune response Humor ( L. liquid , referring to blood or bodily fluid)
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Most antibody molecules are composed of 4 protein chains
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Antibody structure Antibody is made of two proteins one long (2 chains) one short (2 chains) FIGURE 08: Structure of an antibody molecule. V = variable regions C = constant regions
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How do antibodies mediate a positive immune response? Let us count the ways… Activating phagocytosis of bacteria (opsonization) Direct killing by natural killer cells Neutralization and clearance of antigen from body
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The action of phagocytes. Phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils Mediated through binding of antibody to surface of bacteria Specific receptors on neutrophils recognize Ab ( a nti b ody) bound to bacteria Ab-bound bacteria are engulfed and destroyed
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Phagocytosis Macrophage in the process of engulfing bacteria
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Directed lysis by natural killer (NK) cells NK cells release toxic products that can destroy target cells (tumor cells, virus-infected cells) Effects of Antibody Binding Courtesy of Wikimedia
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Antibody Effects - Neutralization Antibody binds toxin & prevents damage to target cells Antibody prevents binding of microbe to host cells
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Antibody molecule, with some detail V = variable region C = constant region Inter-chain bonds These ends bind antigen These ends are recognized by NK cells
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Infinite diversity of antibodies The V region is variable and mediates specific antigen binding.
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