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Unformatted text preview: AIDS FUNDAMENTALS Immunology, continued Oct. 4, 2011 Dr. Althea Capul, Ph.D. [email protected] Humoral Immunity and Antibody • B lymphocytes respond to foreign antigen by making antibody. – Anti body-gen erating molecule • The generation of antigen-specific antibody is part of the humoral immune response • Humor ( L. liquid , referring to blood or bodily fluid) Most antibody molecules are composed of 4 protein chains Antibody structure • Antibody is made of two proteins – one long (2 chains) – one short (2 chains) FIGURE 08: Structure of an antibody molecule. V = variable regions C = constant regions How do antibodies mediate a positive immune response? Let us count the ways… • Activating phagocytosis of bacteria (opsonization) • Direct killing by natural killer cells • Neutralization and clearance of antigen from body The action of phagocytes. Phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils • Mediated through binding of antibody to surface of bacteria • Specific receptors on neutrophils recognize Ab ( a nti b ody) bound to bacteria • Ab-bound bacteria are engulfed and destroyed Phagocytosis Macrophage in the process of engulfing bacteria • Directed lysis by natural killer (NK) cells – NK cells release toxic products that can destroy target cells (tumor cells, virus-infected cells) Effects of Antibody Binding Courtesy of Wikimedia Antibody Effects - Neutralization Antibody binds toxin & prevents damage to target cells Antibody prevents binding of microbe to host cells Antibody molecule, with some detail V = variable region C = constant region Inter-chain bonds These ends bind antigen These ends are recognized by NK cells Infinite diversity of antibodies • The V region is variable and mediates specific antigen binding....
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This note was uploaded on 12/13/2011 for the course BIOSCI 45 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at UC Irvine.

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