beh225_appendix_c-MarkSpencer - Axia College Material...

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Axia College Material Appendix C Brain Response of Behavior Part I Communication process of neurons in the brain : Nerve impulses start with transfers between neurons which relay chemical messages. These transfers are communicated using electrochemical processes. These chemical messages pass through the axon, are transferred, and sent on to the next neuron. In order to transmit the messages from cell to cell, the Synapse must be triggered for the impulse to begin. The chemical message must pass through a portion of the pre-synaptic neuron before it reaches the post synaptic neuron. Pouches referred to as synaptic vesicles release the chemicals that enter the post synaptic dendrite on its way to the next cell. Once the chemicals are received, they act like a key activating a lock mechanism. Concerning neuron transmitters, there are thousands of communicators. Some of these communicators can either help or they can hinder a human being. If there is not enough of the chemical dopamine released, it could limit the use of muscles, and it can cause involuntary muscle movement. People who have less dopamine in their system than they should may show signs of mental illnesses, such as Parkinson’s disease. BEH 225
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Five common neurotransmitters and their effects on behavior: Acetylcholine - is a neurotransmitter that has many functions. Acetylcholine is responsible for the stimulation and control of many muscles, such as the muscles that control the gastro-intestinal system. It also plays a role with arousal, attention, memory, motivation, and movement. Dopamine - is a neurotransmitter that inhabits the nerve impulse in motor neurons. When it makes its way to the receptor sites, it restricts the normal impulses of that neuron to fire. Dopamine affects a person’s behavior as well as their emotions, including how the person may respond to pressure. Some drugs increase the levels of dopamine, like nicotine. If you have taken something and it feels good, it probably has caused dopamine to be released. Some of the drugs that can stimulate this area are cocaine, opium, heroin, and alcohol. You need Acetylcholine and Dopamine to control voluntary movement. Serotonin - is an inhibitory neurotransmitter thought to play a large role with a person’s mood’s and emotions. If a person does not have enough serotonin in his or her system, it has been found to cause depression, anger management issues, obsessive-compulsive disorders, or even lead to suicide. Lack of
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beh225_appendix_c-MarkSpencer - Axia College Material...

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