Tutorial 3 (unit 4, 5)[1]

Tutorial 3 (unit 4, 5)[1] - Tutorial 3 Problem-solving:...

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Unformatted text preview: Tutorial 3 Problem-solving: Units 4 and 5 Unit 4: Biological Information Flow Flow of Information from DNA to Protein Promoter DNA RNA PROTEIN 3 3 5 5 Direction of Transcription START Transcription Site STOP Transcription Site RNAP A U G U GA Primary Tertiary N C START Translation Site (START CODON) STOP Translation Site (STOP CODON) N C Ribosome 5 3 TRANSCRIPTION = making mRNA from DNA DNA = STORES GENETIC INFORMATION RNA = three different functions: Ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) makes us the ribosome . Each ribosome consists of about 60% ribosomal RNA and 40% protein. Messenger RNAs (mRNA) "record" information from DNA in the cell nucleus and carry it to the ribosomes . Transfer RNAs- (tRNA) delivers amino acids one by one to protein chains growing at ribosomes TRANSCRIPTION cont. Not all DNA is transcribed, only transcription units (genes). Each transcription unit encodes an RNA transcript or family of transcripts. These transcripts are processed transported to the cytoplasm translated (mRNA) Note: mRNA is made in the NUCLEUS! LOCALIZATION VERY IMPORTANT!! NOTE: DNA is always read 3' to 5' so that the new RNA is made in the 5' to 3' direction. TRANSCRIPTION Many RNA polymerase molecules may process the same transcription unit at the same time. See animation of transcription http://vcell.ndsu.nodak.edu/animations/tran TRANSLATION - Involves the transfer of biological information from the 4 nucleotide code of nucleic acids (A,C,G,T) into the 20 amino acid code of proteins- Each 3 nucleotide coding unit that specifies an amino acid is called a codon . A codon is a group of three consecutive nucleotides required to specify a single amino acid Translation INITIATION ELONGATION TERMINATION Translation http://vcell.ndsu.nodak.edu/animations/translation/mov Animation: Key Points to remember Transcription: DNA to RNA DNA is read 3 to 5 while RNA is made 5 to 3 Translation: making a polypeptide chain from mRNA mRNA is read 5 to 3 Complementary base pairing. A with T, C with G....
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Tutorial 3 (unit 4, 5)[1] - Tutorial 3 Problem-solving:...

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