BIOL 200 (Section 921)
Lecture # 4/5 [UNIT 4]
UNIT 4: BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION FLOW - from DNA (gene) to RNA to
, pp. 229-262;
, pp. 267-286 (focus only on parts
covered in lecture). Related questions 7-8, 7-9, 7-11, 7-12, 7-14, 7-16, 7-17, 8-5a,b,d;
, pp. 211-240; 263-4;
, pp. 257-270 (focus only on parts
covered in lecture). Related questions 7-9, 7-10, 7-12, 7-13, 7-15, 7-18, 7-19; 8-7b,c,e.
I. TRANSCRIPTION, RNA
• Understand the structural differences between DNA and RNA, and the directionality of
• Understand the structure of a eukaryotic gene.
• Describe the general mechanism of transcription, including binding, initiation,
elongation and termination. Discuss factors regulating transcription.
• Describe processing for all three types of RNA, and discuss why it must occur.
--> implies the same language-language of nucleotides.
- the process of using the DNA sequence as a template and make a
Differential gene expression:
e.g. of 30,000 genes in a typical mammalian cell, only
about 5,000 are being transcribed at any time. Which 5000 depends on the cell type.
Some are housekeeping genes, all cells transcribe them; some are specific to cell
function, such as red blood cells where 95% of protein in cell is hemoglobin.
• Transcription units (genes) contain the transcribed information and all associated
regulatory sequences for the production of an RNA transcript.
• Structure of eukaryotic gene:
Promoter region, DNA elements that bind transcription regulatory proteins;
5' untranslated region;
coding region (exons);
3' untranslated region