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Lecture 4-5 Outline

Lecture 4-5 Outline - BIOL 200(Section 921 Lecture 4/5[UNIT...

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BIOL 200 (Section 921) Lecture # 4/5 [UNIT 4] June 18 th /19 th , 2009 UNIT 4: BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION FLOW - from DNA (gene) to RNA to protein Reading : ECB (2 nd Ed.) Chap 7 , pp. 229-262; Chap 8 , pp. 267-286 (focus only on parts covered in lecture). Related questions 7-8, 7-9, 7-11, 7-12, 7-14, 7-16, 7-17, 8-5a,b,d; or ECB (1 st ed.) Chap 7 , pp. 211-240; 263-4; Chap 8 , pp. 257-270 (focus only on parts covered in lecture). Related questions 7-9, 7-10, 7-12, 7-13, 7-15, 7-18, 7-19; 8-7b,c,e. I. TRANSCRIPTION, RNA Learning Objectives • Understand the structural differences between DNA and RNA, and the directionality of transcription. • Understand the structure of a eukaryotic gene. • Describe the general mechanism of transcription, including binding, initiation, elongation and termination. Discuss factors regulating transcription. • Describe processing for all three types of RNA, and discuss why it must occur. Main Points: Transcribe=copy --> implies the same language-language of nucleotides. Transcription - the process of using the DNA sequence as a template and make a faithful RNA copy. Differential gene expression: e.g. of 30,000 genes in a typical mammalian cell, only about 5,000 are being transcribed at any time. Which 5000 depends on the cell type. Some are housekeeping genes, all cells transcribe them; some are specific to cell function, such as red blood cells where 95% of protein in cell is hemoglobin. • Transcription units (genes) contain the transcribed information and all associated regulatory sequences for the production of an RNA transcript. • Structure of eukaryotic gene: (i) Promoter region, DNA elements that bind transcription regulatory proteins; (ii) 5' untranslated region; (iii) coding region (exons); (iv) noncoding regions(introns); (v) 3' untranslated region
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• Transcription is carried out by RNA polymerase, a multi-protein complex that assembles on the promoter region of the transcription unit and proceeds to transcribe the DNA information to form an RNA transcript.
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