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Unformatted text preview: W aveguides
Waveguides, like transmission lines, are structures used to guide
electromagnetic waves from point to point. However, the fundamental
characteristics of waveguide and transmission line waves (modes) are quite
different. The differences in these modes result from the basic differences
in geometry for a transmission line and a waveguide.
Waveguides can be generally classified as either m etal waveguides o r
dielectric waveguides . Metal waveguides normally take the form of an
enclosed conducting metal pipe. The waves propagating inside the metal
waveguide may be characterized by reflections from the conducting walls.
The dielectric waveguide consists of dielectrics only and employs
reflections from dielectric interfaces to propagate the electromagnetic wave
along the waveguide.
Metal Waveguides Dielectric Waveguides C omparison of Waveguide and Transmission Line Characteristics
Transmission line Waveguide • Two or more conductors C Metal waveguides are typically
separated by some insulating
one enclosed conductor filled
medium (twowire, coaxial,
with an insulating medium
microstrip, etc.).
(rectangular, circular) while a
dielectric waveguide consists of
multiple dielectrics.
• Normal operating mode is the C Operating modes are TE or TM
TEM or quasiTEM mode (can
modes (cannot support a TEM
support TE and TM modes but
mode).
these modes are typically
undesirable).
• No cutoff frequency for the TEM C Must operate the waveguide at a
mode. Transmission lines can
frequency above the respective
transmit signals from DC up to
TE or TM mode cutoff frequency
high frequency.
for that mode to propagate.
• Significant signal attenuation at C Lower signal attenuation at high
h ig h f re q u e n c ie s d u e to
frequencies than transmission
conductor and dielectric losses.
lines.
• Small crosssection transmission C Metal waveguides can transmit
lines (like coaxial cables) can
high power levels. The fields of
only transmit low power levels
the propagating wave are spread
due to the relatively high fields
more uniformly over a larger
concentrated at specific locations
crosssectional area than the
within the device (field levels are
small crosssection transmission
limited by dielectric breakdown).
line.
• Large crosssection transmission C Large crosssection (low
lines (like power transmission
frequency) waveguides are
lines) can transmit high power
impractical due to large size and
levels.
high cost. G eneral Wave Characteristics as Defined
b y Maxwell’s Equations
Given any timeharmonic source of electromagnetic radiation, the
phasor electric and magnetic fields associated with the electromagnetic
waves that propagate away from the source through a medium
characterized by (ì ,å) must satisfy the sourcefree Maxwell’s equations (in
phasor form) given by The sourcefree Maxwell’s equations can be manipulated into wave
equations for the electric and magnetic fields (as was shown in the case of
plane waves). These wave equations are where the wavenumber k is realvalued for lossless media and complexvalued for lossy media. The electric and magnetic fields of a general wave
propagating in the + zdirection (either unguided, as in the case of a plane
wave or guided, as in the case of a transmission line or waveguide) through
an arbitrary medium with a propagation constant of ã are characterized by
a zdependence of e!ãz. The electric and magnetic fields of the wave may
be written in rectangular coordinates as where á is the wave attenuation constant and â is the wave phase constant.
The propagation constant is purely imaginary (á = 0 , ã = jâ ) when the wave
travels without attenuation (no losses) or complexvalued when losses are
present. T he transverse vectors
in the general wave field
expressions may contain both transverse field components and longitudinal
field components. By expanding the curl operator of the source free
Maxwell’s equations in rectangular coordinates, we note that the
derivatives of the transverse field components with respect to z are If we equate the vector components on each side of the two Maxwell curl
equations, we find We may manipulate (1) and (2) to solve for the longitudinal field
components in terms of the transverse field components. w here the constant h is defined by The equations for the transverse fields in terms of the longitudinal fields
describe the different types of possible modes for guided and unguided
waves. F or simplicity, consider the case of guided or unguided waves
propagating through an ideal (lossless) medium where k is realvalued. For
TEM modes, the only way for the transverse fields to be nonzero with
is for h = 0 , which yields Thus, for unguided TEM waves (plane waves) moving through a lossless
medium or guided TEM waves (waves on a transmission line) propagating
on an ideal transmission line, we have ã = jk = jâ .
For the waveguide modes (TE, TM or hybrid modes), h cannot be
zero since this would yield unbounded results for the transverse fields.
Thus, â
k for waveguides and the waveguide propagation constant can be
written as The propagation constant of a wave in a waveguide (TE or TM waves) has
very different characteristics than the propagation constant for a wave on
a transmission line (TEM waves). The ratio of h /k in the waveguide mode
propagation constant equation can be written in terms of the cutoff
frequency fc f or the given waveguide mode as follows. The waveguide propagation constant in terms of the waveguide cutoff
frequency is A n examination of the waveguide propagation constant equation reveals
the cutoff frequency behavior of the waveguide modes.
If f < fc, ã = á (purely real) e!ã z = e!á z
waves are attenuated
(evanescent m odes). If f > fc, ã = j â (purely imaginary) e ! ã z = e ! jâ z
waves are unattenuated
(propagating modes). Therefore, in order to propagate a wave down a waveguide, the source must
operate at a frequency higher than the cutoff frequency for that particular
mode. If a waveguide source is operated at a frequency less than the cutoff
frequency of the waveguide mode, then the wave is quickly attenuated in
the vicinity of the source. T E and TM Modes in Ideal Waveguides
(PEC tube, perfect insulator inside)
Waves propagate along the waveguide (+ zdirection) within the
waveguide through the lossless dielectric. The electric and magnetic fields
of the guided waves must satisfy the sourcefree Maxwell’s equations. Assumptions:
(1)
(2) (3) the waveguide is infinitely long, oriented along the
zaxis, and uniform along its length.
the waveguide is constructed from ideal materials
[perfectly conducting pipe (PEC) is filled with a
perfect insulator (lossless dielectric)].
fields are timeharmonic. The crosssectional size and shape of the waveguide dictates the
discrete modes that can propagate along the waveguide. That is, there are
only discrete electric and magnetic field distributions that will satisfy the
appropriate boundary conditions on the surface of the waveguide
conductor.
If the single nonzero longitudinal field component associated with
a given waveguide mode can be determined
for a TM mode,
for
a TE mode), the remaining transverse field components can be found using
the general wave equations for the transverse fields in terms of the
longitudinal fields. G eneral waves in an arbitrary medium TE modes in an ideal waveguide T M modes in an ideal waveguide The longitudinal magnetic field of the TE mode and the longitudinal
electric field of the TM mode are determined by solving the appropriate
boundary value problem for the given waveguide geometry. Ideal Rectangular Waveguide The rectangular waveguide can support either TE or TM modes. The
rectangular crosssection (a > b ) allows for singlemode operation . Single
mode operation means that only one mode propagates in the waveguide
over a given frequency range. A square waveguide crosssection does not
allow for singlemode operation.
Rectangular Waveguide TM modes
The longitudinal electric field of the TM modes within the rectangular
waveguide must satisfy the wave equation which expanded in rectangular coordinates is The electric field function may be determined using the separation of
variables technique by assuming a solution of the form Inserting the assumed solution into the governing differential equation
gives where h 2 = ã 2 + k 2 = k 2 ! â 2. Dividing this equation by the assumed solution
gives
(1)
Note that the first term in (1) is a function of x o nly while the second term
is a function of y o nly. In order for (1) to be satisfied for every x a nd y
within the waveguide, each of the first two terms in the equation must be
constants. The original second order partial differential equation dependent on two
variables has been separated into two second order ordinary differential
equations each dependent on only one variable. The general solutions to
the two separate differential equations are T he resulting longitudinal electric field for a rectangular waveguide TM
mode is The TM boundary conditions for the rectangular waveguide are The application of the boundary conditions yields The resulting product of the constants A and C can be written as a single
constant (defined as E o). The number of discrete TM modes is infinite
based on the possible values of the indices m and n . An individual TM
mode is designated as the TM mn mode. The longitudinal electric field of the
TM mn mode in the rectangular waveguide is given by The transverse field components of the TM m n mode are found by
differentiating the longitudinal electric field as defined by the standard TM
equations. In general, the cutoff frequency will increase as the mode index increases.
Thus, in practice, only the lower order modes are important as the
waveguide is operated at frequencies below of the cutoff frequencies of the
higher order modes. R ectangular Waveguide TE modes
The longitudinal magnetic field of the TE modes within the
rectangular waveguide must satisfy the same wave equation as the
longitudinal electric field of the TM modes: which expanded in rectangular coordinates is The same separation of variables technique used to solve for the
longitudinal TM electric field applies to the longitudinal TE magnetic field.
Thus, the longitudinal TE magnetic field may be written as T o determine the unknown coefficients, we apply the TE boundary
conditions. Given no longitudinal electric field for the TE case, the
boundary conditions for the transverse electric field components on the
walls of the waveguide must be enforced. The TE boundary conditions are: T he transverse components of the TE electric field are related to
longitudinal magnetic field by the standard TE equations. The application of the TE boundary conditions yields Combining the constants B and D into the constant H o, the resulting
longitudinal magnetic field of the TE mn m ode is N ote that the indices include m = 0 and n = 0 in the TE solution since these
values still yield a nonzero longitudinal magnetic field. However, the case
of n = m = 0 is not allowed since this would make all of the transverse field
components zero. The resulting transverse fields for the waveguide TE
modes are where (m = 0 , 1, 2, ...) and (n = 0 , 1, 2, ...) but m = n
0 f or the TE mn mode. S ummary of Rectangular Waveguide Modes
Rectangular waveguide
mn index pairs (TMmn) Rectangular waveguide
mn index pairs (TEmn) R ectangular Waveguide TE and TM Mode Parameters
The propagation constant in the rectangular waveguide for both the
TE mn and TM mn w aveguide modes (ã mn) is defined by The equation for the waveguide propagation constant ã mn c an be used to
determine the cutoff frequency for the respective waveguide mode. The
propagation characteristics of the wave are defined by the relative sizes of
the parameters h mn and k. The propagation constant may be written in terms
of the attenuation and phase constants as
ã mn = á mn + jâ mn
so that,
if h mn = k Y ã mn = 0 (á mn = â mn = 0 ) Y c utoff frequency if h mn > k Y ã mn (real), [ã mn= á mn] Y e vanescent modes if h mn < k Y ã mn (imag.), [ã mn= jâ mn] Y p ropagating modes Therefore, the cutoff frequencies for the TE and TM modes in the
rectangular waveguide are found by solving N ote that the cutoff frequency for a particular rectangular waveguide mode
depends on the dimensions of the waveguide (a ,b ), the material inside the
waveguide (ì ,å), and the indices of the mode (m ,n ). The rectangular
waveguide must be operated at a frequency above the cutoff frequency for
the respective mode to propagate.
A ccording to the cutoff frequency equation, the cutoff frequencies of
both the TE 10 and TE 01 modes are less than that of the lowest order TM
mode (TM 11). Given a > b for the rectangular waveguide, the TE 10 has the
lowest cutoff frequency of any of the rectangular waveguide modes and is
thus the dominant mode (the first to propagate). Note that the TE 10 and
TE 01 modes are d egenerate modes (modes with the same cutoff frequency)
for a square waveguide. The rectangular waveguide allows one to operate
at a frequency above the cutoff of the dominant TE 10 mode but below that
of the next highest mode to achieve single mode operation. A waveguide
operating at a frequency where more than one mode propagates is said to
be o vermoded .
Example (Rectangular waveguide propagating modes)
A rectangular waveguide (a = 2 cm, b = 1 cm) filled with
deionized water ( ì r = 1, år = 8 1 ) operates at 3 GHz. Determine all
propagating modes and the corresponding cutoff frequencies. Cutoff frequencies  TM modes (GHz) Mode Cutoff frequencies  TE modes (GHz) fc (GHz) TE 10 0.833 TE 01, TE 20 1.667 TE 11, TM 11 1.863 TE 21, TM 21 2.357 TE 30 2.5 As previously shown, the propagation constant for a given mode can
be defined in terms of the cutoff frequency for that mode by The field components, cutoff frequency and propagation constant
associated with the dominant TE 10 mode (using the TE mn equations with m
=1, n = 0 , and ã mn = jâ 10) are: The corresponding instantaneous fields of the TE 10 mode are determined by
multiplying the phasor field components by e jù t and taking the real part of
the result. The waveguide wavelength is defined using the same definition as for
unguided (TEM) waves [ë = 2 ð /â ]. However, the size of the waveguide
wavelength can be quite different than that of an unguided wave at the
same frequency. The wavelength of a TE or TM mode propagating in the
rectangular waveguide can be written in terms of the wavelength for an
unguided (TEM) wave propagating in the same medium (ì ,å) as found
inside the waveguide (designated as ëN). T he denominator of the rectangular waveguide wavelength equation
becomes very small when the operating frequency is very close to the
cutoff frequency. This yields a waveguide wavelength which is much
longer than that of an unguided wave traveling through the same medium
at the same frequency. Conversely, if the operating frequency is very large
in comparison to the cutoff frequency, the denominator approaches a value
of unity, and the waveguide wavelength is approximately equal to the TEM
wavelength.
Just as the characteristic (wave) impedance for the TEM modes on a
transmission line is defined by a ratio of the transverse electric field to the
transverse magnetic field, the wave impedances of the TE and TM
waveguide modes can be defined in the same manner. The waveguide
wave impedance can be related to the wave impedance of a TEM wave
traveling through the same medium (as that inside the waveguide) at the
same frequency. The waveguide TE and TM wave impedances are defined
by N ote that the product of the TE and TM wave impedances is equal to the
square of the TEM wave impedance. W aveguide Group Velocity and Phase Velocity
The velocity of propagation for a TEM wave (plane wave or
transmission line wave) is referred to as the p hase velocity (the velocity at
which a point of constant phase moves). The phase velocity of a TEM
wave is equal to the velocity of energy transport. The phase velocity of a
TEM wave traveling in a lossless medium characterized by (ì ,å) is given
by The phase velocity of TE or TM mode in a waveguide is defined in the
same manner as that of a TEM wave (the velocity at which a point of
constant phase moves). We will find, however, that the waveguide phase
velocity is not equal to the velocity of energy transport along the
waveguide. The velocity at which energy is transported down the length
of the waveguide is defined as the g roup velocity.
The differences between the waveguide phase velocity and group
velocity can be illustrated using the field equations of the TE or TM
rectangular waveguide modes. It can be shown that the field components
of general TE and TM waveguide modes can be written as sums and
differences of TEM waves. Consider the equation for the ycomponent of
the TE mode electric field in a rectangular waveguide. By applying the trigonometric identity: this component of the waveguide electric field can be written as T he two terms in the TE field equation above represent TEM waves
moving in the directions shown below. Thus, the TE wave in the rectangular waveguide can be represented as the
superposition of two TEM waves reflecting from the upper and lower
waveguide walls as they travel down the waveguide. For the general TE m n o f TM mn waves, the phase velocity of the TEM
component is given by Inserting the equation for the waveguide phase constant â m n g ives The waveguide phase velocity represents the speed at which points of
constant phase of the component TEM waves travel down the waveguide.
The waveguide phase velocity is larger than the TEM wave phase velocity
given that the square root in the denominator of the waveguide phase
velocity equation is less than unity. The relationship between the
waveguide phase velocity, waveguide group velocity, and the TEM
component wave velocity is shown below. T he waveguide group velocity (the velocity of energy transport) is always
smaller than the TEM wave phase velocity given the square root term in the
numerator of the group velocity equation. E xample
Given a pair of degenerate modes (TE mn a nd TM mn) in an airfilled
rectangular waveguide with a cutoff frequency of 15 GHz, plot the
following parameters as a function of frequency: phase velocity and group
velocity, TE wave impedance and TM wave impedance, TEM wavelength
and mode wavelength, TEM phase constant and mode phase constant. A ttenuation in Waveguides
Only ideal waveguides have been considered thus far (characterized
by a perfect conductor filled with a perfect insulator). The propagating
waves in an ideal waveguide suffer no attenuation as the travel down the
waveguide. Two loss mechanisms exist in a realistic waveguide: conductor
loss and dielectric loss. The fields associated with the propagating
waveguide modes produce currents that flow in the walls of the waveguide.
Given that the waveguide walls are constructed from an imperfect
conductor (ó c < 4 ), the walls act like resistors and dissipate energy in the
form of heat. Also, the dielectric within the waveguide is not ideal (ó d > 0 )
so that dielectric also dissipates energy in the form of heat. The overall attenuation constant á (in units of Np/m) for a realistic
waveguide can be written in terms of the two loss components as where á c is the attenuation constant due to conductor loss and á d is the
attenuation constant due to dielectric loss. For either TE or TM modes in
a rectangular waveguide, the attenuation constant due to dielectric loss is
given by T he attenuation constant due to conductor loss in a rectangular
waveguide depends on the mode type (TE or TM) due to the different
components of field present in these modes. The attenuation constant due
to conductor losses for the TM mn mode in a rectangular waveguide is given
by where is the surface resistance of the waveguide walls and is the skin depth of the waveguide walls at the operating frequency. It is
assumed that the waveguide wall thickness is several skin depths such that
the wall currents are essentially surface currents. This is an accurate
assumption at the typical operating frequencies of waveguides ( GHz)
where the skin depth of common conductors like aluminum and copper are
on the order of ì m.
The attenuation constant due to conductor losses for the TE mn mode
in a rectangular waveguide with (n
0) is given by F or the special case of (n = 0 ), the attenuation constant due to conductor
losses for the TE m0 mode in a rectangular waveguide is The equation above applies to the dominant rectangular waveguide mode
[TE 10]. Example (Waveguide attenuation)
An aluminum waveguide (a = 4 .2 cm, b = 1 .5 cm, ó c = 3 .5 × 10 7 É /m)
filled with teflon (ì r = 1 , å r = 2 .6, ó d = 1 0 !15 É /m) operates at 4 GHz.
Determine (a.) á c and á d f or the TE 10 mode (b.) the waveguide loss
in dB over a distance of 1.5 m. F or this problem, we see that the dielectric losses are negligible in
comparison to the conductor losses. The waves propagating in the + z d irection in the rectangular
waveguide vary as Thus, over a distance of 1.5 m, the fields associated with the wave
decay according to In terms of dB, we find [a loss of 0.1154 dB in 1.5m]. C avity Resonators
At high frequencies where waveguides are used, lumped element
tuned circuits (RLC circuits) are very inefficient. As the element
dimensions become comparable to the wavelength, unwanted radiation
from the circuit occurs. Waveguide resonators are used in place of the
lumped element RLC circuit to provide a tuned circuit at high frequencies.
The rectangular waveguide resonator is basically a section of rectangular
waveguide which is enclosed on both ends by conducting walls to form an
enclosed conducting box. We assume the same crosssectional dimensions
as the rectangular waveguide (a , b ) and define the longitudinal length of the
resonator as c. Given the conducting walls on the ends of the waveguide,
the resonator modes may be described by waveguide modes which are
reflected back and forth within the resonator (+ z and ! z d irections) to form
standing waves. Waveguide (waves in one direction) C avity (waves in both directions, standing waves) The separation equation for the cavity modes is The cavity boundary conditions (in addition to the boundary conditions
satisfied by the rectangular waveguide wave functions) are From the sourcefree Maxwell’s curl equations, the TE and TM boundary
conditions on the end walls of the cavity are satisfied if Application of the TE and TM boundary conditions yields T he TE and TM modes in the rectangular cavity are then The resonant frequency associated with the TE mnp or TM mnp mode is found
from the separation equation to be The lowest order modes in a rectangular cavity are the TM 110, TE 101,
and TE 011 modes. Which of these modes is the dominant mode depends on
the relative dimensions of the resonator.
E xample (Cavity resonator)
Find the first five resonances of an airfilled rectangular cavity with
dimensions of a = 5 cm, b = 4 cm and c = 1 0 cm (c > a > b ). T he quality factor (Q) of a waveguide resonator is defined the same
way as that for an RLC network. where the energy lost per cycle is that energy dissipated in the form of heat
in the waveguide dielectric and the cavity walls (ohmic losses). The
resonator quality factor is inversely proportional to its bandwidth. Given
a resonator made from a conductor such as copper or aluminum, the ohmic
losses are very small and the quality factor is large (high Q, small
bandwidth). Thus, resonators are used in applications such as oscillators,
filters, and tuned amplifiers. Comparing the modes of the rectangular
resonator with the propagating modes in the rectangular waveguide, we see
that the waveguide modes exist over a wide band (the rectangular
waveguide acts like a highpass filter) while the rectangular resonator
modes exist over a very narrow band (the rectangular resonator acts like a
bandpass filter).
Circular Waveguide
The same techniques used to analyze the ideal rectangular waveguide
may be used to determine the modes that propagate within an ideal circular
waveguide [radius = a , filled with dielectric (ì ,å)] The separation of
variables technique yields
solutions for the circular
waveguide TE and TM
propagating modes in terms of
Bessel functions. The cutoff
frequencies for the circular
waveguide can be written in
terms of the zeros associated
with Bessel functions and
derivatives of Bessel functions. T he cutoff frequencies of the TE and TM modes in a circular
waveguide are given by where
and
define the n th z ero of the m thorder Bessel function and
Bessel function derivative, respectively. The values of these zeros are
shown in the tables below.
TE modes TM modes Note that the dominant mode in a circular waveguide is the TE 11 mode,
followed in order by the TM 01 mode, the TE 21 mode and the TE 01 mode. E xample (Circular waveguide)
Design an airfilled circular waveguide yielding a frequency
separation of 1 GHz between the cutoff frequencies of the dominant
mode and the next highest mode.
The cutoff frequencies of the TE 11 mode (dominant mode) and the
TM 01 m ode (next highest mode) for an airfilled circular waveguide
are F or a difference of 1 GHz between these frequencies, we write Solving this equation for the waveguide radius gives The corresponding cutoff frequencies for this waveguide are O ne unique feature of the circular waveguide is that some of the
higher order modes (TE 0n) have particularly low loss. The magnetic field
distribution for these modes generates lower current levels on the walls of
the waveguide than the other waveguide modes. Therefore, a circular
waveguide carrying this mode is commonly used when signals are sent over
relatively long distances (microwave antennas on tall towers).
The general equations for the circular waveguide TE mn and TM mn
mode attenuation constants due to conductor loss are given by Example (Circular waveguide attenuation)
An airfilled copper waveguide (a = 5 m m, ó c = 5 .8 × 10 7 É /m) is
operated at 30 GHz. Determine the loss in dB/m for the TM 01 mode. T he attenuation in terms of dB/m is [a loss of 0.3231 dB/m] ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/13/2011 for the course ELEG 413 taught by Professor Mirotznik during the Spring '11 term at University of Delaware.
 Spring '11
 Mirotznik

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