2010 ENDOCRINE II - PITUITARY AND PINEAL GLANDS Roger J Bick Reading Gartner Hiatt Chapter 10 Klein and McKenzie 251-270 Learning Objectives

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PITUITARY AND PINEAL GLANDS Roger J Bick Reading: Gartner & Hiatt, Chapter 10; Klein and McKenzie, 251-270 Learning Objectives: Describe the development of the pituitary Describe and identify the cell types and hormones of the adenohypophysis Describe and identify the cell types and hormones of the neurohypophysis Describe the histology and function of the pineal gland Key Words : Rathke's pouch, chromophobes, acidophils, basophils, herring bodies, pinealocytes, corpora aranacea PITUITARY GLAND I. Overview A. Consists of adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary) and neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) B. Embryogenesis 1. Neurohypophysis a. Pars nervosa b. Infundibulum (stalk + median eminence) 2. Adenohypophysis – thickening of oral ectoderm that invaginates, forming a pouch (Rathke’s pouch). a. Pars distalis (pars anterior) b. Pars tuberalis (surrounds the neural stalk) c. Pars intermedia
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II. Blood Supply A. Arterial supply is from the internal carotid artery 1. Right and left superior hypophyseal arteries – pars tuberalis + infundibulum + median eminence 2. Right and left inferior hypophyseal arteries – pars nervosa + a little stalk B. Portal system 1. Primary capillary plexus branches off of superior hypophyseal arteries in the stalk and median eminence. Carry hypothalamic hormones to the adenohypophysis 2. Secondary capillary plexus found in pars distalis 3. Capillaries are fenestrated. C. Sites of hormone production and regulation 1. Neurons of supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus produce hormones that are stored at the ends of their axons in the neurohypophysis. 2. Neurons of the dorsal medial, ventral medial and infundibulary nuclei of the hypothalamus produce releasing and inhibitory hormones that control function of the anterior pituitary gland. They are stored in axons in the median eminence and transported to the adenohypophysis via the primary capillary plexus. 3. Hormones are produced by cells of the pars distalis and enter the circulation via the secondary capillary plexus.
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III. ADENOHYPOPHYSIS A. Pars Distalis composed of nest and cords of epithelial cells surrounded by capillaries and reticular fibers. 1.
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This note was uploaded on 12/25/2010 for the course NEUROBIOLO MSI taught by Professor Rogerj.bick during the Spring '10 term at University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.

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2010 ENDOCRINE II - PITUITARY AND PINEAL GLANDS Roger J Bick Reading Gartner Hiatt Chapter 10 Klein and McKenzie 251-270 Learning Objectives

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