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FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM (I) Marylee M Kott, MD Learning Objectives : Identify the epithelial lining of the different areas of the female reproductive system. Learn the general morphologic changes of the endometrium during the menstrual cycle and in other physiologic conditions. Reading : Gartner and Hiatt pp 343-365; Klein and McKenzie, pp 287-297 Key Words (For all Female Reproductive System): amnion, anchoring villus, antrum, areolar, sebaceous gland, atretic follicle, cervical canal, cervix, chorionic plate, chorionic villi, ciliated cells of the oviduct, corona radiata, corpus albicans, corpus luteum, cortex of ovary, cumulus oophorus, cytotrophoblast, decidua basalis, decidual cells, endocervix, endometrial glands, endometrium, menstruating stage endometrium: proliferative stage endometrium: secretory stage, follicular cell, germinal epithelium, granulosa cell, granulosa lutein cells, interlobular ducts, intralobular (alveolar) ducts, lactiferous duct and sinus, mammary gland, maternal blood supply, medulla of ovary, membrane granulosa, myometrium, nipple, oocyte, ovary, oviduct, ampulla oviduct, fimbriae oviduct, infundibulum oviduct, isthmus, peg cells, placenta, plicae, primary follicle, primordial follicle, secondary follicle, secretory alveolus, stem villus, stratum basalis, stratum functionalis, syncytiotrophoblast, theca externa, theca folliculi, theca interna, theca lutein cells, uterus, vagina, zona pellucida A. VULVA: 1. Defined as “external female genitalia” a. External to hymen. b. Extends anteriorly to include pubis. c. Extends posteriorly to the anus. d. Extends laterally to the inguinal-gluteal folds. e. Includes: mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, hymen, the vestibule, Skene’s and Bartholin’s glands and ducts, minor vestibular glands and the urethral meatus. 2. Covered by keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium. 3. Hymen is thinly keratinized on external surface, but on vaginal surface has non- keratinized mucosa rich in glycogen. 4. Mons pubis and lateral aspects of labia majora a. Changes at puberty. b. Increase subcutaneous fat and develop coarse curly hair. c. Concomitant maturation and development of sebaceous and apocrine glands. 5. Lateral aspects of the labia minor and inner aspects of prepuce (which do not have hair) also show maturation of sebaceous and apocrine glands at puberty. 6. Eccrine sweat glands, which are primarily involved in heat regulation, function before puberty. 7. Labia majora contain both smooth muscle and fat. 8. Labia minora are devoid of fat but are rich in elastin and vessels (erectile tissue). 9. Clitoris is the descendent of the embryonic phallus a. No sebaceous, apocrine or eccrine sweat glands. b.
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