2010 INTEGUMENT complete +lab - THE SKIN (INTEGUMENTARY...

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THE SKIN (INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM) Rhonda Ghorbani, MD Reading: Klein and McKenzie, pp 211-219; Gartner and Hiatt Chapter 11, p217 Learning Objectives: List the basic functions of the skin and describe its overall structure Describe basic skin embryology State the names of the layers of the epidermis and how to distinguish them histologically Explain ultrastructural (electron microscopic) features of the epidermis and the epidermal/dermal junction Describe the process of keratinization in the epidermis, hair, and nail Describe the formation of the water barrier in the epidermis Name the non-keratinocytic cells in the epidermis and state their functions Explain the structure and components of the dermis, including types of nerves and vascular system State the segments and layers of the hair follicle Describe the relationship between hair size and phase of hair growth Describe the structure, location, and function of different types of cutaneous glands Describe the structure and growth of the nail Key Words: arrector pili muscle, dermal papillae (dermal ridges), dermal sheath, dermis, duct of sweat gland, epidermis, external root sheath, glassy membrane, hair bulb, hair follicle, hair matrix, hair papilla, hair root, hair shaft, hypodermis, internal root sheath, interpapillary pegs (rete pegs), Meissner's corpuscle, melanocytes of epidermis, melanosomes (melanin granules), myoepithelial cell, Pacinian corpuscle, papillary layer of dermis, reticular layer of dermis, sebaceous gland, stratum basale, stratum corneum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum spinosum, sweat gland INTRODUCTION Skin is one of the largest organs in the human body, representing 15-20% of total body weight. It serves many functions, including: S – SENSATION (it is a receptor for pain, pressure, touch, temperature) C – CONVERSION (of precursor molecules into vitamin D) R – REGULATION (of heat) A – ABSORPTION (of certain lipid-soluble therapeutic substances) P E – EXCRETION (of waste products via sweat glands) The skin can be divided into compartments:
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EMBRYOLOGY Epidermis: single-layered ectoderm multilayered periderm stratified squamous epithelium o Vernix caseosa: desquamated periderm/epidermis; slippery; protective and aids in birth Dermis: mesoderm mesenchyme dermis composed of multiple cell types Hair: epidermal invagination lanugo hairs (fine, lightly pigmented) mature hairs Melanocytes: neural crest become melanoblasts in mesenchyme mature in epidermis EPIDERMIS Avascular layers of keratinocytic and non-keratinocytic cells Thickness ranges from 0.1 – 1.0 mm, depending on location o The terms “thin” and “thick” skin refer to the thickness of the epidermis o Thin skin = hairy skin (most of the body) o Thick skin = hairless skin (glabrous skin on palmar/plantar surfaces, i.e. palms/soles)
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2010 INTEGUMENT complete +lab - THE SKIN (INTEGUMENTARY...

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