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SALIVARY GLANDS AND PANCREAS Roger J. Bick Reading: Gartner and Hiatt pp 303-321; p220, 224, 252, 258, 261 Learning Objectives: 1. Understand the histology and function of the salivary glands. 2. Identify and know the differences between mucous and serous acini and where they are located. 3. Know the types of ducts of the major salivary glands and where they are found. 4. Identify the basic histology of the pancreas and differentiate endocrine and exocrine both histologically and functionally. Key Words: Acinar cell, acini, mucous cell, serous cell, islet cell, intercalated duct, striated duct, parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands I. INTRODUCTION The salivary glands are involved in the secretion of enzymes that aid in digestion as well as the moistening of food. The pancreas secretes numerous enzymes that aid in digestion. It also plays the major role in glucose regulation. II. SALIVARY GLANDS Salivary glands are classified according to their function and location, as well as the predominance of either serous or mucous acini. The major salivary glands are the parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and the sublingual. The minor salivary glands are the buccal, palatine, labial, and lingual. B. A. Parotid gland. Monkey. x 132. H&E. (G&H Plate 15-1-1) Serous acini only; B. Sublingual gland. Monkey. x 270. H&E. (G&H Plate 15-1-2) Mixed, mostly mucous acini with serous demilunes.
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B. A. Submandibular gland. Monkey. x 132. H&E. (G&H Plate 15-1-4) Mixed, serous and mucous acini with serous demilunes capping many mucous acini; B. Palatine gland. x 132. H&E. (G&H Plate 2-6-2). Mucous glands only. A. Three types of salivary secretory units are present in these glands. The serous ones contain amylase. The mucous ones secrete sialomucins, and mixed units contain both serous and mucous components. 1. Serous acini consist of pear-shaped groups of epithelial cells surrounded by a distinct basement membrane. The epithelial cells have a dense cytoplasm and a basal nucleus. The acini have a central lumen into which secretions flow from the epithelial cells. 2. Mucous acini are larger than serous acini. The secretory cells have an abundant cytoplasm filled with clear mucus. The cells are pyramidal with flattened basal nuclei. 3. Mixed acini can be characterized by a crescent-shaped formation of serous cells capping a mucous acinus (serous demilune) or by a mixed pattern of serous and mucous acini. Serous demilunes are seen typically in the submandibular gland. Sublingual gland. Monkey. x 540. H&E (H&G Plate 15-1-3).
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