2010 URINARY SYSTEM I Complete +lab - URINARY SYSTEM Part I...

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Roger Bick . Reading: Gartner and Hiatt Chapter 16, pp. 323-340; Klein and McKenzie pp301-310 Learning Objectives: Name components of functioning renal parenchyma versus passive collecting system. Be able to describe the flow of blood through the kidneys from the renal artery back to the renal vein via either a superficial or a juxtamedullary glomerulus. Recognize the main divisions of the nephron with light microscopy and know their main functions. Name the components of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. List the components of the glomerular filtration barrier. Be able to identify the following components of the renal corpuscle with light microscopy: parietal/visceral epithelium, mesangium, capillaries, urinary pole, vascular pole, and Bowman's capsule. Be able to identify the following components of the renal corpuscle by electron microscopy: epithelial, endothelial, and mesangial cells; mesangium; basement membrane. Understand the zones of the kidney and the locations of various parts of the nephron within those zones. Key Words: Cortex, medulla, nephron, transitional epithelium, ureter, Renal corpuscle, glomerular filtration barrier and bladder. GROSS FEATURES A. KIDNEY 1. Location- The kidneys are located in the retroperitoneal space with the upper pole at the level of T12 and the lower at L3. 2. Fetal Features - In fetal life, the kidneys are composed of 7-18 pyramid-shaped lobes (bases externally oriented, apices pointing inward) giving them a lumpy external appearance. The demarcation between the lobes is obscured in time, so that the kidney ultimately has a smooth appearance. It is important to be aware of the early lobar composition of the kidneys to understand the internal architecture and nomenclature. 3. Adult Features -Each kidney weighs 120 to 170 gm and is 11-12 cm in length. a. Functional parenchyma (1) Cortex: This occupies the outermost rim of tissue grossly, being about 1 cm in thickness. Large vessels can be seen and delineate the cortex from the next zone inward, the medulla. (2) Medulla: This zone is medial to the cortex and contains 7-18 conical masses called renal pyramids . The base of each pyramid is at the corticomedullary boundary, while the apex of each extends inward to the renal pelvis, forming a nipple-like protrusion called a papilla . Sometimes several pyramids terminate in a common papilla, so that there are fewer papillae than there are pyramids. Urine is released from small holes in the papillae into a passive collecting system. Extensions of the cortex between adjacent pyramids are called renal columns (of Bertin) . Each pyramid and the surrounding cortical tissue in the renal column comprises a lobe , the total number corresponding to the number of lobes in the fetal kidney. b.
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This note was uploaded on 12/25/2010 for the course NEUROBIOLO MSI taught by Professor Rogerj.bick during the Spring '10 term at University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.

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2010 URINARY SYSTEM I Complete +lab - URINARY SYSTEM Part I...

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