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2010 ENDOCRINE 1 complete +lab - ENDOCRINE SYSTEM 1 Thyroid...

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ENDOCRINE SYSTEM 1 - Thyroid, Parathyroids and Adrenals Roger Bick Reading: Gartner and Hiatt, Chapter 10; Klein and McKenzie pp251-269 Learning Objectives : You should know:- Hormones synthesized by thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands Targets of the synthesized hormones Cell types in the endocrine organs Synthetic pathway of thyroxine and triiodothyronine Blood supply of endocrine organs (type and amount) Aspect of cell(s) through which hormones are secreted (basal v apical) Key Words: Hormones, vascular, receptors, APUD, follicular, parafollicular, Calcitonin, Thyroxine, Triiodothyronine, TSH, iodine/iodide (NB), chief cells, oxyphil cells, parathormone. Zona glomerulosa, fasciculata, reticularis. Aldosterone. Cortisol, dehydroepiandosterone. Catecholamines. Angiotensin (converting enzyme) GENERAL FEATURES OF ENDOCRINE GLANDS I. Ductless glands, secretions into surrounding interstitium, where there is copious vascularity . Secretions rapidly enter bloodstream for delivery to distant organs- receptors at target sites. Parenchyma composed of individual cells, or groups of cells in clumps, cords, arrays or lobules. Secretory products elaborated by endocrine glands include steroid hormones, peptide hormones and amines. II. Discrete endocrine glands - comprised of tissue with the sole function of endocrine secretion. A. Adrenal Glands B. Parathyroids C. Thyroid D. Pineal E. Pituitary Have abundant parenchyma, sparse connective tissue, highly vascularized, containing numerous fenestrated capillaries . Often, inclusion granules in the cytoplasm of the cells- either lipid droplets as precursors to steroid hormone synthesis , or secretory granules for protein elaboration. III. Mixed Exocrine and Endocrine Glands - components of other tissues - both endocrine and exocrine in function. Examples of mixed glands: Organ Exocrine Function Endocrine Function Endocrine Component Pancreas Digestive enzymes Glucagon (A) Insulin (B) Somatostatin (d) Islets of Langerhans Testis Sperm production Testosterone Leydig cells Liver Bile production Albumin Clotting factors Liver Parenchyma Kidney Urine production Renin Juxtaglomerular cells APUD Cells - unicellular endocrine glands; secrete low molecular weight peptides and proteins with hormone-like activity called candidate or putativ e hormones. APUD = Amine Precursor Uptake and
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Decarboxylation ; cells store and concentrate both biogenic amines and precursors in the cytoplasm - They DO NOT stain with haematoxylin and eosin dyes, but DO with silver stains. Therefore they are sometimes referred to as Argentaffin cells. APUD cells found wedged or interspersed among other cells comprising the epithelial lining of organs and systems. These cells have a vast array of physiological functions: Distribution and Secretory Products of APUD cells.
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