Avian Respiratory System and Digestion

Avian Respiratory System and Digestion - Avian Respiratory...

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Avian Respiratory System Avian respiration is more efficient than that of mammals o Gas transfer takes place in the Parabronchi , which run parallel to pulmonary capillaries o The volume of the lung never changes, and ventilation is achieved by compressing and expanding air sacs (Which also serve to reduce the density of the bird) Inhalation: o Posterior air sacs expand and fill with air o Anterior air sacs expand and pull air through parabronchi in the lung Exhalation: o Posterior air sacs compress, forcing air into parabronchi in lungs o Anterior air sacs compress forcing air out through the trachea Air flow is unidirectional; Air is exchanged in the parabronchi during BOTH inhalation and exhalation Physiology of Diving Mammals and Birds The CNS is very sensitive to anoxia Anaerobic metabolism would produce a lot of lactic acid, which is very toxic. Factors affecting dive times: o Metabolism/ O 2 use: Animals with a lower rate of O 2 use can dive for longer periods of time (Turtles can dive longer than humans) A reduction in metabolic rate during prolonged dives Diving mammals glide and remain still as they dive to conserve energy and oxygen o Oxygen Capacity: Total O 2 stores are larger in diving animals Higher hemoglobin in blood; higher myoglobin in muscle Blood and muscle O 2 stores make the major difference o Cardiovascular changes: Dive Reflex: Vasoconstriction restricts blood flow except to the brain and heart (increased peripheral resistance) Bradycardia - marked reduction in heart rate and reduction in cardiac output
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Digestion Heterotroph – an organism that obtains food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products Dietary Needs: o Chemical energy – fuel for cellular work Obtained from oxidation of organic molecules (fats, carbs, proteins) Fat releases twice as much energy as carbs and proteins Triglyceride - three fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule by covalent bonds (Ester Linkage ) Saturated Fats form linear molecules, and can form a solid structure at room temperature; these are fats derived from animals Unsaturated Fats have a cis double bond which causes them to stay a liquid at room temperature; these are fats derived from plants Carbohydrates - “Polysaccharides” – 2 major types:
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This note was uploaded on 12/13/2011 for the course BIO 362 taught by Professor Walikarzai during the Spring '10 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Avian Respiratory System and Digestion - Avian Respiratory...

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