Chapter 18 - Chapter 18: The Progressive Era 1900-1916 The...

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Chapter 18: The Progressive Era 1900-1916 The progressive era was marked by the millions of new jobs produced, and an unprecedented array of goods within reach of American Consumers (676) More Americans lived in towns and cities than in rural areas for the first time. The word Progressive loosely defined a political movement of individuals and groups who hoped to bring about significant change in Anerican social and political life. Farms and Cities o The economies total output rose by about 85% (678) o The expansion of urban areas stimulated farm goods, and families poured into the Great Plains. Over 1 million claims for free gov land were made under the Homestead act of 1862 o The city became the focus of progressive politics and of a new mass-consumer society. The Muckrakers o A new generation of journalists writing for mass-circulation national magazines exposed the ills of industrial and urban life Lewis Hine photographed Child Labor Sister Carrie by Theodore Dreiser showed the truth of prostitution The Jungle by Upton Sinclair exposed unsanitary slaughterhouse conditions and led to the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act of 1906 (680) Immigration as a Global Process o People started shifting about the globe in huge numbers, 13 million came to the US alone. Sparked by widespread poverty and illiteracy, burdensome taxation, and declining economies. o Most European immigrants passed through Ellis Island, while Mexicans came through Texas, and Asians came through Angel Island. o Over 40% of NYC’s population was born abroad. (683) The Immigrant Quest for Freedom o The new immigrants clustered in close-knit “ethinc” neighborhoods with their own shops, theatres, and community organizations, and often continued to speak their native tongues. o Although most immigrants earned more than was possible in the impoverished regions from which they came, they endured low wages, long hours, and dangerous work conditions. Consumer Freedom o The promise of mass consumption became the foundation for a new understanding of freedom as access to the cornucopia of goods made available by modern capitalism. o Liesure activities even took on the characteristics of mass consumption. The Working Woman
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o The traditional gender roles were changing dramatically in Progressive America o Black women still worked primarily as domestics or in southern cotton fields. Immigrant women were largely confined to low-paying factory employment. Native-born white women were now able to work in a wide array of different fields. The Rise of Fordism o Ford did not invent the automobile, but he developed the techniques of production and marketing that brought it within the reach of ordinary Americans. o
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This note was uploaded on 12/13/2011 for the course BIO 362 taught by Professor Walikarzai during the Spring '10 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Chapter 18 - Chapter 18: The Progressive Era 1900-1916 The...

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