Class 8

Class 8 - How we got here States pursue survival ina n...

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How we got here States pursue survival ina n anarchic world Uncertainty + offense = fear of CD Why are we not all dead (Jervis)? Or why aren’t we always at DD? States have incentives to cooperate (CC>DD) Alliances; aim is to deter challenger, but if not… defeat challenger (Germany) IO’s: (why do they exist at all (Keohane)? Lower costs of CC (transaction costs) Reduce uncertainty by sharing info Foreign Policy and Domestic Politics Two visions of foreign policy: Roosevelt (realist) vs Wilson (liberal) Roosevelt Wilson Do domestic politics matter? No. Only balance of power matters Yes. Democracies are peaceful Should foreign policy be moral? No. Foreign policy should maximize power Yes. Foreign policy should promote moral values Wilson: domestic politics (institutions + moral/ideology) matter WWJS (what would John M. say?) Wilson is foolish Roosevelt is right States should not care about domestic politics But… in practice, states do consider domestic policy when designing foreign policy Ex. Communism vs Democracy IR used to think of states as billiard balls Domestic politics doesn’t matter because… Structure (balance of power) was what drove state behaviour All leaders would behave the same way, given a similar balance of power States basing foreign policy on domestic politics were foolish (Cold War) How we found domestic politics mattered Democracies were relatively uncommon Few demo existed did fight wars just like everyone else But as # of demo expanded, scholars noticed that while demo fought non-demo, demo almost never fought each other --> had to start looking at domestic policy
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Class 8 - How we got here States pursue survival ina n...

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