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Fall 2011 Final Review - Lecture 1 What is a Biochemical...

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CHE339/BME339/BIO335 Fall 2011 Final Review Help for Lectures 1-7 Page 1 Lecture 1 What is a Biochemical Engineer? A biochemical engineer is someone who when with engineers, talks biology, when with biologists, talks engineering, and when with biochemical engineers, talks politics. ~V. Hatzimanikatis Fundamental training: Biology qualitative, improvements in experimental/laboratory tools, descriptive models, interpretation of laboratory data from complex systems. Formulation of testable hypotheses, experimental design, and data interpretation. Engineering emphasis on physical and mathematical sciences, mathematical formulations, quantitative models and approaches to complex systems. Generally unfamiliar with experimental techniques and strategies used by life scientists. Life Science Engineer needs a solid understanding of biology (microbiology, biochemistry, cell biology) and its experimental tools to apply engineering principles to biological systems. Lecture 3 Bacteria Growth Curve: Lag Phase Lag phase: Cells are adapting to a new environment. Duration of lag phase depends on media composition, inoculation density, acclimation of inoculum Bacteria can communicate! Quorum Sensing Via excretion of constitutive compounds receptors enable bacteria to detect concentration and thus change their metabolism appropriately Dense: aggregate, may form a biofilm Low concentration with plentiful resources: cells will maximize growth using resources optimally
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CHE339/BME339/BIO335 Fall 2011 Final Review Help for Lectures 1-7 Page 2 Bacterial Growth Curve: Exp. phase Biomass increases exponentially in the Exponential phase (a.k.a. log phase) μ is the growth rate (h -1 ) Χ is the cell mass concentration (g/l) t is time (h) Growth rate (μ) depends on the concentration of the limiting nutrient. If the growth is not limited by nutrients, but by metabolic capacity then: μ net = μ max , the maximum growth possible for the cell (hr -1 ) Bacterial Growth Curve: Stat. phase Growth decelerates and stops due to nutrient limitation or accumulation of inhibitory products Cells adapt to scarce conditions, shift biosynthesis towards synthesizing and degrading stored carbohydrates, osmotic adaptation proteins, enzymes to resist oxidative stress Biosynthesis is shifted mechanistically by an RNA polymerase subunit: the sigma ( σ ) factor. Stationary phase is important: Biotechnology: harvesting antibiotics Medicine: pathogenic microorganisms are difficult to eradicate Bacterial Growth Curve: Death phase Population declines, usually first order: K d is the rate constant and depends on the growth conditions Cell viability decrease rapidly, though small fraction will survive for months Biomass decreases 0 t and t at time ions concentrat cell are X and X or , ln : yields equation
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