cpe631smp - CPE 631: Multiprocessors and Thread-Level...

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CPE 631: Multiprocessors and Thread-Level Parallelism Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Alabama in Huntsville Aleksandar Milenkovic, milenka@ece.uah.edu http://www.ece.uah.edu/~milenka
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2 AM L a CA S A Growth in processor performance 1 10 100 1000 10000 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 Performance (vs. VAX-11/780 25%/year 52%/year 20%/year VAX : 25%/year 1978 to 1986 RISC + x86: 52%/year 1986 to 2002 RISC + x86: 20%/year 2002 to present From Hennessy and Patterson, Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach , 4th edition, October, 2006
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3 AM L a CA S A Déjà vu all over again? “… today’s processors … are nearing an impasse as technologies approach the speed of light. .” David Mitchell, The Transputer: The Time Is Now ( 1989 ) Transputer had bad timing (Uniprocessor performance ) Procrastination rewarded: 2X seq. perf. / 1.5 years “We are dedicating all of our future product development to multicore designs. … This is a sea change in computing” Paul Otellini, President, Intel ( 2005 ) All microprocessor companies switch to MP (2X CPUs / 2 yrs) Procrastination penalized: 2X sequential perf. / 5 yrs Manufacturer/Year AMD/’05 Intel/’06 IBM/’04 Sun/’05 Processors/chip 2 2 2 8 Threads/Processor 1 2 2 4 Threads/chip 2 4 4 32
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4 AM L a CA S A Other Factors Favoring Multiprocessing A growing interest in servers (and their performance) A growth in data intensive applications data bases, file servers, game servers, . .. An insight that we do not care that much about further improving desktop performance (except for graphics) An improved understanding in how to effectively use multiprocessors in server environments (a lot of thread-level parallelism) The advantages of leveraging a design investment by replication rather than unique design
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5 AM L a CA S A Parallel Computers Definition: “A parallel computer is a collection of processing elements that cooperate and communicate to solve large problems fast.” Almasi and Gottlieb, Highly Parallel Computing ,1989 Questions about parallel computers: How large a collection? How powerful are processing elements? How do they cooperate and communicate? How are data transmitted? What type of interconnection? What are HW and SW primitives for programmer? Does it translate into performance?
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6 AM L a CA S A Flynn’s Taxonomy Flynn classified by data and control streams in 1966 Single Instruction Single Data (SISD) (Uniprocessor) Single Instruction Multiple Data SIMD (single PC: Vector, CM-2) Multiple Instruction Single Data (MISD) (????) Multiple Instruction Multiple Data MIMD (Clusters, SMP servers) M.J. Flynn, "Very High-Speed Computers", Proc. of the IEEE , V 54, 1900-1909, Dec. 1966.
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7 AM L a CA S A Flynn’s Tahonomy (cont’d) SISD ( Single Instruction Single Data ) uniprocessors MISD ( Multiple Instruction Single Data ) multiple processors on a single data stream; SIMD ( Single Instruction Multiple Data ) same instruction is executed by multiple processors using different data Adv.: simple programming model, low overhead, flexibility,
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cpe631smp - CPE 631: Multiprocessors and Thread-Level...

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