Industry in Brazil
Brazilian industry has its earliest origin in
dating from the beginning of the 19th
century. Most of the country's industrial establishments appeared in the Brazilian southeast
(mainly in the provinces of Rio de Janeiro,
and, later, São Paulo), and, according to
the Commerce, Agriculture, Factories and Navigation Joint, 77 establishments registered
between 1808 and 1840 were classified as “factories” or “manufacturers”. However, most, about
56 establishments, would be considered workshops by today's standards, directed toward the
candles of tallow
melting of iron
, amongst others. They used both slaves and free laborers.
Iron Factory in Sorocaba, province of São Paulo, 1884.
There were twenty establishments that could be considered in fact
, and of this
total, thirteen were created between the years 1831 and 1840. All were, however, of small size
and more resembled large workshops than proper factories. Still, the
, spinning and weaving, soap and candles,
, etc. Probably because of the instability of the regency period, only nine of
these establishments were still functioning in 1841, but these nine were of
be considered to “presage a new era for manufactures”.
The advent of real manufacturing
before the 1840s was extremely limited, due to the self-sufficiency of the regions of the country
(mainly farms producing coffee and sugar cane, which produced their own food, clothes,
equipment, etc…), the lack of capital, and high costs of production that made it impossible for
national manufactures to compete with foreign products. Costs were high because most of the
raw materials were imported, even though some of the
The promulgation of the Alves Branco tariff would modify this picture. This tariff succeeded in
increasing State revenues and stimulating growth of national industry.
proliferation of capital was directed to investments in the areas of urban services, transports,
commerce, banks, industries, etc…
Most of the capital invested in industries was directed
With unprecedented industrial growth, multiple manufacturing establishments
appeared, dedicated to such diverse products as melting of iron and metal, machinery, soap and
candles, glasses, beer, vinegar, gallons of gold and silver, shoes, hats and cotton fabric.
One of the main establishments created at this period was the metallurgical factory
(In English: Sand Tip), in the city of
, that also constructed