Lecture Notes

Lecture Notes - PATTERNS IN PRE-HISTORY NOTES 12:03:00 PM...

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PATTERNS IN PRE-HISTORY NOTES 22/08/2007 14:03:00 Pre-history : The record of humanity before the invention of writing Archaeology : Reconstruction of the human past on the basis that the material  remains  70% of the research is done in the library Culture : Adaptation which is not under genetic control Cumulative through time Flexible, rapid and on a massive scale Taught and learned Anthropology : Study of mankind Biological Anthropology : Study of human adaptation and their physical  attributes Three sources of information in the past… Oral tradition Documentary evidence Material culture How archaeologists learn about material culture… Survey Publish Share Excavation (digging) Analysis of excavated and museum collections
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Observation of the material culture in the present Archaeologists… Most important tool is the trowel Photograph everything Take notes Culture History : Defines and arranges cultural units in space and time Cultural Reconstruction : Assigns behavioral and sociological meaning to  archaeological materials in an attempt to reconstruct a culture in the past. Processual or “New” Archaeology : Use the scientific method and heavy  analytical techniques to test theoretically derived hypotheses; wanted to make  archaeology as scientific as possible Post-Processual Critique : Rejects science as a single truth, and instead uses a  more “humanistic” approach based on common sense and intuition. Evolutionary Ecology : Applies natural selection theory to explain cultural  change in the context of the ecological constrains. (Very reliable, popular for  archaeology) Old World – Africa, Asia, Europe, Australia, and Oceania New World – North American (including Central America), South America     Artifact : A thing, which owes any of its physical characteristics including location  to human activity…spear point, rocks, bones, etc…just about EVERYTHING because it  changed or it moved from one place to another Site : A place where ancient or past human activity occurred…one that humans  can visually see…classified by age, society or culture, by location
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Feature : Non-portable artifact…part of the landscape as well or in the site, due to  human activity Environmental factors we are concerned with     : Temperature, plants (flora)  Animals (fauna), water (hydrology), ice on the land (land under ice), exposed land (land  one can settle on), arable (land one can grow on) land, sunlight Where do we get paleoclimateic data?     Pollen Speleotherms Animal bones (types of animals)
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2008 for the course TRAD 101 taught by Professor Weiner during the Fall '08 term at Arizona.

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Lecture Notes - PATTERNS IN PRE-HISTORY NOTES 12:03:00 PM...

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