A second important cultural factor was the changing political and ideological attitude in England. When Charles attended Cambridge to study for the clergy, the conservative Tories were in power. While he was away on the Beagle, the Tories fell from power and were replaced by a less conservative government that emphasized freedom of belief and freedom of commerce. The new attitude of freedom and competition, exemplified by Malthus's theory about the "struggle for survival," was a foreshadowing of Darwin's own theory of competition in the natural world. Intellectual Context While Darwin is properly credited with making evolution the dominant paradigm in biology, he was not the first to come up with the idea. In fact Darwin's major contribution was to suggest a mechanism for evolution–natural selection–that did not depend on the intervention of a divine power. There were three major revolutions in scientific thought
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