In the 1870's, the support for evolution came under attack from several directions. Alfred Russell Wallace, the co-discoverer of evolution, had started to argue that humanity was exempt from evolution and that there was mystical guiding force that gave evolution direction. This idea was a direct attack on what had made Darwin's theory so revolutionary: the idea that evolution was an orderly process that resulted from random variation and the survival of the fittest. Another attack came from physicists such as Lord Kelvin, who argued on the basis of measurements of the earth's temperature that the earth had existed for only twenty-five or thirty million years. An evolutionist required more time–on the order of hundreds of millions of years–for all of life to have evolved. There were also attacks from other unexpected quarters: a mathematician, Henry
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