In the end, Bell triumphed over the courts but faced market competition from Edison. When Bell began using the telephone to compete with the telegraph in urban areas, Western Union bought Gray's telephone patent and put Edison to work on improving Bell's device. Edison discovered the weakness of Bell's device–poor sound transmission–and invented a transmitter that greatly improved the volume of the telephone. Western Union gained a tremendous advantage by using Edison's transmitter with Gray's telephone receiver, which infuriated Bell. He saw his chance to respond when Edison's transmitter was tested in England in November 1878. They had tested Edison's device by linking it to a Bell receiver. Bell threatened to sue Edison for patent infringement. Edison tried to create his own receiver to avoid a court battle, but his attempts were inferior to Bell's. In addition, the British government ruled against Edison in 1880, in the
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